What civilization built the first pyramid?

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posted on Mar, 31 2004 @ 09:44 PM
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Most people know of the three great pyramids at Giza, and the ones found in Mexico, but most people have no idea, that pyramids can be found all over the glode. Some of the pyramids seem as if they were built before the three great pyramids at Giza, and those in Mexico, unless we have understimated the age of them, because they are also found underwater, like the ones found in Japan.

Pyramids in Japan.

"The monument is 600ft wide and 90ft high and has been dated to at least 8000BC. The oldest pyramid in Egypt, the Step Pyramid at Saqqara, was constructed more than 5,000 years later. "



excerpt and picture taken from.
www.cyberspaceorbit.com...

But is this the oldest building in the world as some scientists are claiming?

Pyramids in China.



"Historically China is well known for things like the Great Wall of China, its dynastic rulers and of course it superb china ware. It is not very well known for its Pyramids, well China has a large number of pyramids, possibly over a 100. Most of them are located in a 70-mile area around the city of Xi'an. This has mostly been unknown by the out side world, thou as china opens up this may change. "

Excerpt and picture taken from.
www.earthquest.co.uk...
Pyramids off the coast of Cuba?

Pyramids in Tenerife, one of the Canary Islands.



"Discovery

Archaeologists and authorities scoffed when a local newspaper published an article claiming to have discovered mysterious step-pyramids on the island of Tenerife. Just more agricultural stone terraces they said, such as are common throughout the Canaries.

But Thor Heyerdahl thought differently. Dr. Heyerdahl, who has done extensive research on the pyramids of Tucume in Peru, was intrigued by photos of the site, and on visiting the valley of Guimar to see for himself, he was no longer in any doubt. These were neither terraces nor random piles of stone cleared by the Spaniards, as some had tried to explain them away. They were painstakingly built step-pyramids, constructed according to similar principles as those of Mexico, Peru, and ancient Mesopotamia. "

Excerpt and picture taken from.

www.ferco.org...


Pyramids found in Greece.

"There are more than 16 pyramids spread over Greece. The oldest one is the pyramid of Hellinikon.

The existence of ancient pyramids in Greece, some of which date before those found in Egypt, is now being discovered and investigated. At Hellenikon and Ligourio west of Athens in the Argolid region, are two limestone pyramids that are stylistically very much like those at Giza near Cairo. The big difference is size; the Greek pyramids are only the size of a large room compared to the Great Pyramid's height (with capstone) of almost 500 feet. "




Picture and excerpt taken from.
www.crystalinks.com...


"HELLENIC PYRAMIDS
It is not well known that there are Greek pyramids . There are more than 16 pyramids spread all over the Greece .The oldest one is the pyramid of Hellinikon

INTRODUCTION

The existence of pyramids in Greece was unknown to most people until recently, and even today not much is known about them. For example, the pyramid of Hellenikon, near Argos, is older than the Pyramids of Egypt. In fact, Pausanias (in Graeciae Descriptio) says that this pyramid was a memorial in rememberance of the first battle fought by soldiers bearing shields!

Pyramids in Greece are usually smaller than the ones found in Egypt (exeptions are a few sculpted pyramids) and they are in a rather poor state."

Excerpt taken from.
www.ancientgr.com...


Pyramids in the US. (Mississippi and Illinois)


"Just east of St. Louis, near Collinsville, Illinois is the largest earth mound in the western hemisphere. It is 30 metres high and dates back to 1100-1400 AD. "



Picture and excerpt taken from.
survive2012.com...


Pyramids in Peru.

Huallamarca Pyramid



Pachacamac Pyramid - with ramp




Pyramids in Brazil?

"BRAZIL
In the Jungles of Brazil close to the Peruvian Andes Mountains lay twelve Pyramids in two rows of six side by side. The site has been viewed on a satellite imaging map done by x-raying the jungle with infared photography. Apparently lowering people on ropes from helicopters with chains saws the jungle resisted all attempts to get through the dense forest. "

Excerpt taken from.
www.crystalinks.com...


(Muaddib--i haven't found any photos and very few sites that talk about this, so this is a rumor for now. Maybe a member of the forums is from Brazil and knows something about this.)


Pyramids in New Zealand?

(Muaddib---Found this site, but after reading the info it is possible these were really build just for defense.)


Maungarei (Mt Wellington), Auckland, New Zealand





Excerpts taken from.

www.pyramids.co.nz...


Pyramids found in Sudan.





"On the way from Khartoum to Port Sudan, about 200 km north-east of Khartoum, near Bagrawiya, lies ancient Meroe, the home of a few dozens pyramids spread over a small hill about one quarter square kilometer in size.

The pyramids, much smaller than their well-known counterparts in Egypt, are the remains of a royal cemetery from the Meroitic kingdom (between 300 B.C. and 300 A.D.). "

(Muaddib--These pyramids were an attempt by the kings of Napata to supposedly revive the burial rituals of the Egyptians according to archeologists, but no mummies were ever found inside the three great pyramids.)

Excerpt and picture taken from.
www.crystalinks.com...

What about the buildings and possible pyramids found off the coast of Cuba?

Ancient city and pyramids off the coast of Cuba?




"In July of 2000, a commercial expedition found several large, manmade structures 2,200 feet below the surface of the Gulf of Mexico, southwest of Cuba, near the Yucatan Peninsula."

Excertp taken from.
www.mysteriousworld.com...


"Cuba's Sunken City

Deep in the waters of Cabo de San Antonio, off Cuba's coast, researchers are exploring unusual formations of smooth blocks, crests, and geometric shapes. The Canadian exploration company that discovered the formations, Advanced Digital Communications, has suggested that they could be the buildings and monuments of an early, unknown American civilization."

Excertp taken from.
news.nationalgeographic.com...


Underwater discoveries.

"Increasingly, as technological advances allow researchers to probe into the depths of our seas around the world, new discoveries are being made almost everywhere it seems."







Excerpt and pictures taken from.
www.morien-institute.org...



Also found this site with some more info on ancient pyramids.

www.geocities.com...



[Edited on 31-3-2004 by Muaddib]




posted on Mar, 31 2004 @ 10:15 PM
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Imhotep was the first architect to plan and design these immense funeral tombs, which were surrounded by a wall of stones. Just the surrounding walls of the complex of Saqqarah must have been for those times a tremendous undertaking, but the crowning glory was of course the enormous pyramid, which had six steps (each sixty metres high), in the middle of the building complex. Egypt was thus thrust into a cycle of five to six hundred years during which several of these these impressive tombs or "homes for eternity" sprang up (100 km west of the Nile).

How this man of genius could conceive and design such plans and to such precision, would surprise even contemporary architects. He not only opened builders' yards to produce large carved stones (replacing the former brick dried in the sun), but he put in place some ingenious processes to transport these by boat! He also is credited with a process of landsliding sand over the blocks to close certain passageways in the pyramids.

In contrast, at Gizeh, the pyramid of Djeser was composed of three parts: several huge buildings with columns, a pyramid with a flat terrace on top of it, and the whole was surrounded and protected by a surrounding wall with bastions! We can ask several questions :

What purpose did the large adjacent palace serve ?
Why have such elaborate fortifications ?
Was it that this kind of pyramid had a second purpose to raise the king in his lifetime up towards the sky and above his people ?
Even though Egypt stopped constructing pyramids, one cannot help comparing them with those erected later in other countries and on other continents, like Asia, South and Central America, where one often finds the same steps, the same designs and the same square bases as those in Egypt (!) We know that they were usually used as temples to the cult of the sun god.

Imhotep's pyramid :




publish.uwo.ca...









[Edited on 31-3-2004 by ShadowMan]



posted on Mar, 31 2004 @ 10:24 PM
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I remember in 2000-2002 (around that time) watching a video on tv of Paulina looking at a computer monitor as she was looking at a structure which was captured by one of their submarine cameras, it looked like a pyramid.

I found this picture of that same moment. National Geographic was very interested in this but the story seems to have gone from the news and i haven't seen or heard any updates on these structures.




Picture taken from.
www.morien-institute.org...



posted on Mar, 31 2004 @ 10:32 PM
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Imhotep supposedly build that in the third dynasty around 2700 BC, the pyramids in Japan and that off the coast of Cuba among others are far older. The pyramids of Japan are from 8000 BC. Imhotep, did not build the earliest pyramid, if it was him who built it.

The pyramid off Cuba does not look like a step pyramid, it looks like one of the pyramids at Giza. (When i saw the video of the submarine robot taking its video.)



posted on Mar, 31 2004 @ 10:33 PM
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Just because there's a pyramid in Japan, it doesn't mean it was built by Japanese people.

Just because there's a pyramid in China, it doesn't mean it was built by Chinese people.

The rest goes for the entire world.

Remember that.



posted on Mar, 31 2004 @ 10:46 PM
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Look at the picture taken from above of some of the pyramids in China.





This is a picture from above of the pyramids at Giza.





posted on Mar, 31 2004 @ 10:48 PM
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Those two pictures show differences and similarities.

I will try to see if I can find other pictures from above from other places. If anyone knows of a site that has such pictures from above pelase post them.



posted on Mar, 31 2004 @ 10:51 PM
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Illmatic, so are you saying that Imhotep went around the world, living for thousands of years and built, or helped build all those pyramids?

BTW, there is not just one pyramid in Japan, or China, or the rest of the world. China has over 100 pyramids.

[Edited on 31-3-2004 by Muaddib]



posted on Mar, 31 2004 @ 10:55 PM
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Originally posted by Muaddib
Illmatic, so are you saying that Imhotep went around the world, living for thousands of years and built, or helped build all those pyramids?



No, I'm saying that Africans were the ones who spread into Asia and Europe building these pyramids.

The Egyptians discovered America thousands of years ago. The Mayans were their descendants.

Where do you think the Mayans and the Olmecs came from? You think they just poofed and appeared from thing air.

The Egyptians were a lot of things and that included sailors and navigators.



posted on Mar, 31 2004 @ 11:20 PM
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It seems that there are pyramids also in Russia. I will see if i can get pictures.

"So, pyramids, or something else?

A joint expedition of Russian and Uzbek archaeologists has discovered several ancient pyramids in Uzbekistan.

According to the scientists, these 15-metre-high constructions concealed for human eyes may be at least 2,700 years old. The ancient pyramids were discovered in a remote mountains area, in Kashkadaryin and Samarkand regions, in the south of the country, BBC reports.

Archaeologists state that the discovered pyramids are similar to that ones of Giza, Egypt, though in contrast of them, Uzbek pyramids they have a flat surface.

According to the experts, thanks to their remoteness, the pyramids were not taken to pieces to serve as a building material for a later epoch.

Though it is not obligatory, that the Uzbek pyramids had the same purpose as the Egyptian ones. That could be religious constructions, all the more that they are almost two times younger. Pyramids were also built in Northern America, in Africa, by ancient Ethiopians, while Mesopotamian pyramidal towers are also sometimes compared with Egyptian pyramids, however in scientific circles this considered to be incorrect.

According to archaeologists, if the constructions are really pyramids, this is a very important discovery, taking into account that nothing of the kind was found in this area before. Now, the task of the scientist is to link the find with chronology and known local cults, to clear up what was the purpose of these constructions: tombs, temples, or something else-

Yelena Kiseleva
PRAVDA.Ru"

Excerpt taken from.
english.pravda.ru...



posted on Apr, 1 2004 @ 12:01 AM
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There are many references to other races, not just people from Africa building these.

There are some very ancient cultures that state in their teachings that we are in an eternal voyage. That what we experience as beginning and end, is just one of the cycles in eternity. The hindus are not the only ones who think like this. Buddhism also teaches this, there was no creation, and there will be no total destruction. We just go through different cycles.

The different cycles we go through do have beginnings and ends, some of the younger religions think that there was only one creation of the universe and it will be destroyed as their scriptures say. But the oldest of religions do not teach this. Even science tells us that nothing can ever be destroyed or created, things transform from one state of being into another.

"Ajata vada or the theory of non-causality. This is an
ancient Hindu doctrine which states that the creation of
the world never happened at all. It is a complete denial
of all causality in the physical world. Sri Ramana
endorsed this view by saying that it is the jnani’s (Man
who is Self-realised) experience that nothing ever
comes into existence or ceases to be because the
Self alone exists as the sole unchanging reality. It is a
corollary of this theory that time, space, cause and effect, essential components of all creation theories, exist only in the minds of ajnanis (ignorant) and that the experience of the Self reveals their non-existence."

Muaddib-- I made a mistake in another post, I reached the conclusion that one day of Brahma is around 4,000,000 years and that according to the Vedic scriptures worlds are created in this time, but as i have looked into this deeper, i realize my mistake. One day is actually 4,320,000,000 years and one night (Involution) is 4,320,000,000 as it is stated below. The Vedic scriptures puts Earth in one day of Brahma or 4,320,000,000 years. This is interesting since science tells us that the Earth is a bit over 4 billion years old.

"(One kalpa consists of 4,320,000,000 years. Two kalpas make a day and night of Brahma of 8,640,00,000 years.360 such days make one year of Brahma. 100 such years constitute Brahma’s lifetime of 311,040, 000,000,000 years.

Whenever the creation of the world is spoken of, what is really meant is the beginning of a cycle. A new cycle begins by the will of Isvara (Saguna Brahman,), "


Excerpts taken from.
www.hinduism.co.za...

"The Suryasiddhanta speaks of the division of time.
According to it :


Years

Kaliyuga consists of
432,000

Dvaparayuga "
864,000

Tretayuga "
1,296,000

Krtayuga "
1,728,000"

Excerpt taken from.
www.hinduism.co.za...&%20Sri%20Lanka


Years

Thus a Mahayuga consisting of these four yugas comprises 4,320,000 yrs
4,320,000

71 such Mahayugas at the close of 1,728,000 years
make one Manvantara of
308,448,000

14 such Manvantaras constitute one kalpa of
4,320,000,000

Two Kalpas make a day and night of Brahma of
8,640,000,000

360 such days make one year of Brahma consisting of
3,110,400,000,000

100 such years constitute Brahma’s lifetime of
311,040,000,000,000


Excerpt taken from.
www.hinduism.co.za...

All this taken from.
www.hinduism.co.za...

[Edited on 1-4-2004 by Muaddib]



posted on Apr, 1 2004 @ 12:27 AM
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i think maybe illmatic is referring to a global state of knowledge that originated from KMT (egypt) and the mystery schools of WST (luxor); this knowledge base can still be represented by its original "founders" or "originators" in the frescos of the early cultures of Olmec, Toltec, and Meszo america and their links to KMT via coc aine and the jade trade...

its all verifiable;


www.crystalinks.com...
www.geocities.com...

but dont take my word for anything check for yourself and come to your higher minds conclusions...



posted on Apr, 1 2004 @ 12:27 AM
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Man has been on Earth for a far longer period of time than science teaches right now. there have been discoveries that prove this but these have been labelled as "erroneous data." One good book to read is called Forbidden Archeology, the hidden history of the human race, by Cremo and Thompson.

Almost every year now science makes discoveries that tells us that humans have been on Earth for far longer than previously thought.

[Edited on 1-4-2004 by Muaddib]



posted on Apr, 1 2004 @ 12:36 AM
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Most cultures say that they have been around for a long time, it doesn't really matter which culture came first. Some stories of the natives of America talk about the white teachers that taugh them how to cultivate, math and other things. These teachers left saying they would come back.
This is why when the white conquistadores from Spain came to America, they were recieved with open arms.

You can find evidence from many ancient civilizations which seems to prove that many of them went to different parts of the world.

[Edited on 1-4-2004 by Muaddib]



posted on Apr, 1 2004 @ 02:53 AM
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I remember when the subject of the structures near Cuba was a big story. What I'm curious about is why there is nothing new on this story.

They have been looking at it for a couple of years and I can find no new photos or video of this stuff. Has this stuff gone black or are these explorers saving it for books & movies or am I just inept searching for this stuff.

[Edited on 1-4-2004 by outsider]



posted on Apr, 1 2004 @ 12:23 PM
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A civilivzation exsisted 15,000- 20,000 years ago and built the pyramids all over Earth - The article below is in rehards to Tiahuaaco


Tiahuanaco has four (surviving) primary structures, called the Akapana pyramid, the Kalasasaya platform, the Subterranean temple, and the Puma Punku. The ceremonial core of Tiahuanaco was surrounded by an immense artificial moat that archaeologist Alan Kolata believes was “not to provide the Tiwanaku elite with a defensive structure…but rather evoked the image of the city core as an island, not a common, generic island, but the sacred island of Titicaca, the mythic site of world creation and human emergence.” Further commenting on this idea of the mythic centrality of Tiahuanaco, Kolata explains that, “the true name of Tiwanaku was Taypikhala, ‘the stone in the center.’ Such a name had a geocentric and ethnocentric meaning signifying that the city was conceived not only as the political capital of the state but also as the central point of the universe.”




The Akapana pyramid, sometimes called the sacred mountain of Tiahuanaco, is a much eroded, seven-level pyramid measuring some 200 meters on a side and nearly 17 meters tall. Like the nearby Subterranean Temple and the Kalasasaya, the Akapana is precisely oriented to the cardinal directions. Each of the seven levels is constructed with beautifully cut and precisely joined blocks that were faced with panels once covered with metal plaques, carvings, and paintings. In the center of the Akapana’s flat summit is a small, sunken courtyard laid out in the form of a square superimposed over a perfect cross; this courtyard is also oriented to the cardinal directions. Recent excavations of this courtyard, the interior of the pyramid, and the grounds beneath it have revealed an unexpected, sophisticated, and monumental system of interlinked surface and subterranean channels. These channels brought water collected upon the summit down and through the seven levels, where it exited below ground level, merged into a major subterranean drain system underneath the civic/ceremonial core of Tiwanaku, and ultimately flowed into Lake Titicaca.




Commenting on this magnificent engineering, Kolata states, “It is apparent that the complex system of draining the Akapana was not a structural imperative. A much simpler and smaller set of canals could have drained the accumulated water from the summit. In fact the system installed by the architects of Akapana, although superbly functional, is over-engineered, a piece of technical stone-cutting and joinery that is pure virtuosity.” Kolata goes on to wonder about why all this work was done and concludes that, “the Akapana was conceived by the people of Tiwanaku as their principal emblem of the sacred mountain, a simulacrum of the highly visible, natural mountain huacas (sacred places) in the Quimsachata range....The Akapana was Tiwanaku’s principal earth shrine, an icon of fertility and agricultural abundance. It was the mountain at the center of the island-world and may even have evoked the specific image of sacred mountains on Lake Titicaca’s Island of the Sun. In this context, the Akapana was the principal huaca of cosmogenic myth, the mountain of human origins and emergence, which took on specific mytho-historic significance.”




The structure known as the Puma Punka also startles the imagination. It seems to be the remains of a great wharf and a massive, four-part, now collapsed building, and this makes eminent sense for Lake Titicaca long ago lapped upon the shores of Tiahuanaco city, now inland from the lake twelve miles. One of the construction blocks from which the pier was fashioned weighs an estimated 440 tons (equal to nearly 600 full-size cars) and several other blocks are between 100 and 150 tons. The quarry for these giant blocks was on the western shore of Titicaca, some ten miles away. There is no known technology in the ancient Andean world that could have transported stones of such massive weight and size. The Andean people of 500 AD, with their simple reed boats, could certainly not have moved them. Even today, with modern advances in engineering and mathematics, we could not fashion such a structure. How were these monstrous stones moved and what was their purpose? Posnansky suggested an answer, based upon his studies of the astronomical alignments of Tiahuanaco, but that answer is considered so controversial, even impossible, that it has been ignored and censured by the scientific community for fifty years. As such it hasn’t made in into the mainstream history books and therefore hardly anyone knows of the astonishing implications of Posnansky’s findings.




Nearby the Puma Punka and the Akapana pyramid are the Kalasasaya compound and the so-called subterranean temple. It was in these structures that Posnansky made the discoveries that led him to suggest both a great antiquity for Tiahuanaco and an extraordinary use. As part of his studies, Posnansky had conducted precise surveys of all the principal structures of Tiahuanaco. The Kalasasaya structure, a rectangular enclosure measuring about 450 feet by 400 feet, was delineated by a series of vertical stone pillars (the name Kalasasaya means “the standing pillars”) and had an east-west orientation. Utilizing his measurements of the lines of sight along these stone pillars, the orientation of the Kalasasaya, and the purposely-intended deviations from the cardinal points, Posnansky was able to show that the alignment of the structure was based upon an astronomical principle called the obliquity of the ecliptic.




This term, the obliquity of the ecliptic, refers to the angle between the plane of the earth’s orbit and that of the celestial equator, equal to approximately 23 degrees and 27 minutes at the present. The tilt of the obliquity, however, changes very slowly over great periods of time. Its cyclic variation ranges between 22 degrees, 1 minute and 24 degrees, 5 minutes over a period of 41,000 years or 1 degree in 7000 years (this cycle is not to be confused with the better known precessional cycle of 25,920 years or 1 degree of movement every 72 years). The figure that Posnansky determined for the obliquity of the ecliptic at the time of the building of the Kalasasaya was 23 degrees, 8 minutes, and 48 seconds. Based on these calculations, Posnansky was thereby able to date the initial construction of the Kalasasaya and Tiahuanaco to 15,000 BC. This date was later confirmed by a team of four leading astronomers from various prestigious universities in Germany.




This initial construction date, being vastly older than that deemed possible by the prevailing paradigm of history, was (and still is) ridiculed by mainstream archaeologists and prehistorians. But it is not so easy to dismiss Posnansky’s findings as there are other mysteries concerning Tiahuanaco that seem to confirm the great antiquity of the site. Among these are the ancient myths of Tiahuanaco (from throughout the Andean region) that tell of its founding and use in a pre-flood time; the scientific studies that prove a cataclysmic flood did indeed occur some twelve thousand years ago; the utensils, tools, and the fragments of human skeletons that are mixed in with the deepest layers of the flood alluvia (indicating human use of the site prior to the great flood); and the strange carvings of bearded, non-Andean people that are found around the site (replete with sculptural and iconographic details that are completely unique in the western hemisphere).



posted on Apr, 1 2004 @ 12:31 PM
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Excellent archaeological site on many mysterious places

www.world-mysteries.com...



posted on Apr, 1 2004 @ 12:32 PM
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Southern face of the Great Pyramid.
The base originally measured about 230.33m square.
The original height was 146.59m.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Location
The Great Pyramid (the Pyramid of Khufu, or Cheops in Greek) at Gizeh, Egypt, demonstrates the remarkable character of its placement on the face of the Earth.




Click to view larger image

The Pyramid lies in the center of gravity of the continents. It also lies in the exact center of all the land area of the world, dividing the earth's land mass into approximately equal quarters.

The Plate XX from an original 1877 copy of
Piazzi Smyth's "Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid".
Charles Piazzi Smyth (1819-1900) was Astronomer Royal for Scotland
and a respected Scientist.

The north-south axis (31 degrees east of Greenwich) is the longest land meridian, and the east-west axis (30 degrees north) is the longest land parallel on the globe. There is obviously only one place that these longest land-lines of the terrestrial earth can cross, and it is at the Great Pyramid! This is incredible, one of the scores of features of this mighty structure which begs for a better explanation.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Statistics

Khufu Pyramid Statistics





A total of over 2,300,000 (or only 590,712)* blocks of limestone and granite were used in its construction with the average block weighing 2.5 tons and none weighing less than 2 tons. The large blocks used in the ceiling of the King's Chamber weigh as much as 9 tons.

Construction date (Estimated): 2589 B.C..
Construction time (Estimated): 20 years.
Total weight (Estimated): 6.5 million tons.
The estimated total weight of the structure is 6.5 million tons!


Original entrance of the Great Pyramid.
Massive blocks of limestone form a relieving arch over the entrance.

The base of the pyramid covers 13 acres, 568,500 square feet and the length of each side was originally 754 feet, but is now 745 feet.
The original height was 481 feet tall, but is now only 449 feet.
The majority of the outer casing, which was polished limestone, was removed about 600 years ago to help build cities and mosques which created a rough, worn, and step-like appearance.

* According to Socrates G. Taseos, the actual number of stones used to build the Great Pyramid is only 590,712. In his book Back in Time 3104 B.C. to the Great Pyramid- Egyptians Broke Their Backs to Build It- How the Great Pyramid Was Really Built he presents results of his computer calculations. The following is derived from the book mentioned above.

The base measurements of the Great Pyramid are: north - 755.43 ft; south -
756.08 ft; east - 755.88 ft; west - 755.77 ft. These dimensions show no two
sides are identical; however, the distance between the longest and shortest
side is only 7.8 inches.
Each side is oriented almost exactly with the four Cardinal points. The
following being the estimated errors: north side 2'28" south of west; south
side 1'57" south of west; east side 5'30" west of north; and west side 2'30"
west of north.
The four corners were almost perfect right angles: north-east 90degrees 3'
2"; north-west 89 degrees 59'58"; south-east 89 deg 56'27"; and south-west
90 deg 0'33".
When completed, it rose to a height of 481.4 ft., the top 31 feet of which
are now missing. It's four sides incline at an angle of about 51deg. 51 min.
with the ground. At its base, it covers an area of about 13.1 acres. It was
built in 201 stepped tiers, which are visible because the casing stones have
been removed. It rises to the height of a modern 40-story building.

THE BEDROCK AND CORE
The pyramid is built partly upon a solid, large, bedrock core and a platform
of limestone blocks which can be seen at the northern and eastern sides. The
builder of this pyramid was very wise to choose this site because most of
the stones, with the exception of the casing stones, some granite and basalt
stones, could be cut right on the spot and in the nearby quarry. This
practical choice made it possible to reduce considerably the time and
back-breaking labor needed to drag the stones from distant quarries across
the Nile.

The first Step of the pyramid rests on a platform of finely finished
limestone blocks. These blocks are approximately 2.5 ft x 10 ft x 10 ft..
They project beyond the outer edges of the first Step's Casing Stones an
average of 2 feet on all sides. This platform is so flat that the official
survey of the Egyptian Government found that it was less than ½ of an inch
from being level. The removal of several platform stones showed that the
bedrock had been cut and leveled to receive each individual stone, sometimes
as deep as 1 to 2 inches.
On the north side the platform stones have been laid at an irregular angle,
each socket being carefully cut to receive the next stone. One explanation
for this irregularity of stone placement is that these northern platform
stones will have greater resistance to sliding from the downward and
horizontal pressures of the pyramid's face.

The many surveys done on the pyramid proved that the Egyptians located the
sides of the pyramid along the four Cardinal Points with extreme accuracy.
Whether they used the stars, and/or the rising and setting sun, cannot be
determined. One this is certain, that whatever method they used was direct
and very simple.

Once the sand, gravel and loose rocks had been removed, down to the solid
bedrock of the plateau, the whole pyramid site was open-cast quarried into
blocks, leaving a square core for the center of the pyramid (the core is
approximately 412.7 ft square, and rises approx. 46.25 feet high). These
blocks were then stored outside a low wall; made of mortared stone that
surrounds the core (the outside dimensions of the wall are approx. 887.3
feet square). Today there still remains the foundation of this wall on the
north, south and west sides of the pyramid, at an average distance of 65
feet from the outer edge of the base casing stone.

This core gives the pyramid stability from the downward and horizontal
forces that will develop from the superimposed loads of blocks of stones
that are piled up, as the pyramid rises. Also, from the prevailing
north-west winds that exert enormous pressures on the huge areas of the
pyramid's faces, thus increasing these forces further.

Leveling of the entire pyramid site was accomplished by flooding the area
inside the wall with water, leaving just the high spots. These them were cut
down to the level of the surface of the water. Next, some of the water was
released and the high spots again were cut down to the water's surface. This
process was repeated until the entire pyramid site, between the core and the
four walls, was leveled down to the base of the pyramid's platform.

THE CASING STONES
A few of the fine limestone casing blocks remain at the base of the northern
side and show how accurately the stones were dressed and fitted together.
The core masonry, behind the casing stones, consists of large blocks of
local limestone, quarried right on the spot, built around and over the
bedrock core. The size of this core cannot be determined, since it is
completely covered by the pyramid.

The casing stones were of highly polished white limestone, which must have
been a dazzling sight. Unlike marble, which tends to become eroded with time
and weather, limestone becomes harder and more polished.

HOW MANY BLOCKS DID IT ACTUALLY TAKE TO BUILD THE GREAT PYRAMID?
Most books and encyclopedia state that there are 2.3 million blocks of stone
in the Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops), with no mention of method used to
figure this.

Socrates determined the size and weight of the blocks (a standard block),
and ran a Pascal Computer Program (a mathematical model of all the blocks of
stone needed; written by the author to optimize the sizes and weights of the
stones) to come up with the real number of blocks used. Since the volume of
passageways and internal chambers are very small compared to the high volume
of the pyramid, they are ignored at this time, just as though the pyramid
was built of solid stone blocks with mortared joints.

THE SIZE OF THE BLOCKS
The size of the blocks are based on a chance discovery in 1837 by Howard
Vyse. He found two of the original side casing blocks at the base of the
pyramid, 5 ft x 8 ft x 12 ft, with an angle of 51 degrees, 51 minutes cut on
one of the 12 ft. sides. Each of these stones weighed (5 x 8 x 12)/2000 =
39.9 tons before the face angle was cut. These originally were used for the
side casing stones of Step No. 1, in the Pascal computer program. The sizes
of all the other blocks were scaled from these two original blocks of the
remaining Steps 2 to 201.

THE GREAT PYRAMID'S DIMENSIONS AND THEIR LAYOUT
One acre = 43,560 sq. ft, or 208.71 feet on a side.
For the pyramid's base, length = width = (square root of 13.097144 acres) x
208.71 feet = 755.321 feet. Or 755.321 x 12 = 9063.85 inches.

Height = (755.321 x tangent 51deg 51 min)/2 = 480.783 feet. Or 480.783 x 12
= 5769.403 inches.

For the cap stone base: length = width = (32.18 x 2)/tangent 51deg 51 min =
50.55 inches.

The average size of a pyramid stone = (5 x 8 x 12)
The average side measurement, at the base = 759.3 ft.
The height used was 201 steps high, or 480 feet. (This is minus the height
of the Capstone, which was one piece in itself.

The number reached by the Pascal computer program was 603,728 blocks used.
The solid core takes up the space of 13,016 stones.
So, the actual number of stones used to build the Great Pyramid is 603,728 -
13,016 = 590,712.
This figure is (2,300,000 - 590,712) = 1,709,288 blocks less than the often
published 2.3 million value.

NUMBER OF VARIOUS BLOCKS OF STONE USED TO BUILD THE GREAT PYRAMID
Number of platform blocks used (2.5 ft x 10 ft square), equals (759.3 x
759.3(pyramid base)) - (412.7 x 412.7(core base))/(10 x 10(platform block
base)) = 4,062.

Number of CORNER Casing stones where the pyramid faces meet equals 201 steps
x 4 sides = 804.

Number of side casing stones equals ((244 x 127) + 8,953) = 39,941.

Due to Bedrock Core, in the center of Step 1 through 10, the total number of
blocks needed is reduced by 13,016.

THE NUMBER OF ALL BLOCKS BEHIND THE CASING STONES EQUALS
(590,712 - 804 - 39,941) = 549,967.

PLACING THE BLOCKS
The average number of blocks that have to be placed each day equals (590,712
blocks)/(20years x 364.25 days) = 81 blocks per day.

If 10 crews of 300 men work on each of the four sides of the pyramid, then
the totals of 40 crews and 12,000 men will be needed. Each of the crews will
be responsible to place 81/40 = 2 blocks per day.

The workload passes through three phases of decreasing difficulty, which are
determined by the weights of the heaviest blocks:
Steps 1 through 21 (60.59 to 27.24 tons)
Steps 22 through 136 (17.66 to 6.44 tons)
Steps 127 through 201 (3.05 to 2.63 tons)

As the weight of the blocks decrease, Step to Step, the sizes of the drag
crews will decrease. However, when this happens, the number of blocks needed
to be dragged each day can be reduced because one large block can be dragged
and cut into several smaller blocks that are needed.

As the pyramid rises there is less space for the crews to work in and fewer
block to be placed. In other words, the number of workers that will be
needed depends on three factors of: weight of blocks, number of blocks to be
placed, and the working space available.

Source:
Back in Time 3104 B.C. to the Great Pyramid- Egyptians Broke Their Backs to Build It- How the Great Pyramid Was Really Built

© 1990 by Socrates Taseos

Related Books on the Ancient Egypt


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Geometry

Geometry of the Great Pyramid




DIMENSIONS of Great Pyramid
by morphvs

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All rights reserved. No part of this website, including text and images, may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means without the express prior written permission of aiwaz.net_institute. Reprinted with permission.



If the calculations concerning the royal cubit are correct the main dimensions of the pyramid should also prove that. The approximate dimensions of the pyramid are calculated by Petrie according to the remains of the sockets in the ground for the casing stones whose remains are still at the top of the pyramid, and the angle 51° 52' ± 2' of the slopes. The base of 9069 inches is approximately 440 royal cubits (the difference is 9 inches which is not a remarkable difference if we consider the whole dimension and consider that the employed data represent only an estimation of the real values) whereas the calculated height, 5776 inches, is precisely 280 royal cubits. The relation 440:280 can be reduced to 11:7, which gives an approximation of the half value of Pi.


Squaring the Circle


The circle and the square are
united through the circumference:
440x4=1760=2x22/7x280

area of square: 440x440=193600
area of circle:28x28x22/7=246400
sum: 440000



The engagement of Pi value in the main dimensions suggests also a very accurate angle of 51° 52' ± 2' of the slopes which expresses the value of Pi. Another coincidence is the relation between the height of the pyramid's triangle in relation to a half of the side of the pyramid, since it appears to be the Golden Section, or the specific ratio ruling this set of proportions, F = (sqr(5)+1)/2 = 1.618 = 356:220. This ratio, 356:220 = 89:55 is also contained in the first of Fibonacci Series:

1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 ...

A single composition contains two apparently contradicting irrational numbers P and F, without disrupting each other. This appears to be completely opposed to the classical architectural canon which postulates that in 'good' composition no two different geometrical systems of proportions may be mixed in order to maintain the purity of design. But analysis of other architectural and artistic forms suggested that the greatest masters skillfully juggled the proportional canons without losing the coherent system, for they knew that these systems can be interconnected if the path that links them is found. That is obvious In the case of the Great Pyramid where two different principles are interweaved without interference ruling different angles of the composition, which is most importantly a most simple one, namely 11:7, a most simple ratio obviously signifying such infinite mysteries as the value of P and most 'natural' value of F. In spite of common miss-understanding of architectural composition, the most mysterious and praised compositions are very simple but not devoid of anthropomorphic appeal, since everything is made out of human proportions, just like Vitruvius describing the rations of the human body, very simple and very clean. The numbers 7 and in 11 are successive factors in the second of Fibonacci progressions that approximate geometry of the pentagram:

1 3 4 7 11 18 29 47 76 123 ...

The summary of the selected main mean dimensions is:

dimension b. inch m royal cub. palm digit
base 9068.8 230.35 440 3,080 12,320
height 5776 146.71 280 1,960 7,840
sum 720 5,040 20,160
slope 7343.2 186.52 356 2,492 9,968
edge 8630.4 219.21 418 2,926 11,704



The main source of all kinds of delusions and speculations about our mythical past for the western man comes of course from Plato. With the myth of Atlantis he planted the necessary seed of mythical Eden, a culture of high intelligence that lived before the known history. If Plato received any wisdom from the ancient Egypt it could perhaps be traced in the canon of numbers that is so latently present throughout his work, but never on the surface. This canon seems to appear in the descriptions of his fantastic cities where everything is most carefully calculated and proportioned. The topic of Plato's Laws is the description of the ideal state called Magnesia which is entirely composed out of the mysterious number 5,040.

The distance* when Earth is closest to Sun (perihelion) is 147x106 km, which is translated into royal cubits 280x109, hinting at the height of the Great pyramid,
280 royal cubits.

The above article comes from aiwaz.net_institute - Great Pyramid and Giza plateau
and is Copyright © 2001-2003 aiwaz.net_institute.
All rights reserved. No part of this article, including text and images, may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means without the express prior written permission of aiwaz.net_institute. Reprinted with permission.

* Related links: Astronomic & Cosmographic Data, Nasa site with planetary data


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Do not miss this web site: aiwaz.net_institute - Great Pyramid and Giza plateau
Find out more amazing facts about the GREAT PYRAMID: Position of King's Chamber, Queen's Chamber, Subterranean Chamber; SECOND PYRAMID: Dimensions of Pyramid, Great Chamber, Coffer, Lower Chamber; THIRD PYRAMID: Dimensions of Pyramid, Chambers,MATHESIS of Giza Plateau.

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The Golden Ratio & Squaring the Circle in the Great Pyramid
A straight line is said to have been cut in extreme and mean ratio when, as the whole line is to the greater segment, so is the greater to the less. [Euclid]

The extreme and mean ratio is also known as the golden ratio.




If the smaller part = 1, and larger part = G, the golden ratio requires that
G is equal approximately 1.6180

Does the Great Pyramid contain the Golden Ratio?

Assuming that the height of the GP = 146.515 m, and base = 230.363 m, and using simple math we find that half of the base is 115.182 m and the "slant height" is 186.369 m

Dividing the "slant height" (186.369m) by "half base" (115.182m) gives = 1.6180, which is practically equal to the golden ration!

The earth/moon relationship is the only one in our solar system that contains this unique golden section ratio that "squares the circle". Along with this is the phenomenon that the moon and the sun appear to be the same size, most clearly noticed during an eclipse. This too is true only from earth's vantage point…No other planet/moon relationship in our solar system can make this claim.

Although the problem of squaring the circle was proven mathematically impossible in the 19th century (as pi, being irrational, cannot be exactly measured), the Earth, the moon, and the Great Pyramid, are all coming about as close as you can get to the solution!
If the base of the Great Pyramid is equated with the diameter of the earth, then the radius of the moon can be generated by subtracting the radius of the earth from the height of the pyramid (see the picture below).



Click here to view larger picture.

Also the square (in orange), with the side equal to the radius of the Earth, and the circle (in blue), with radius equal to the radius of the Earth plus the radius of the moon, are very nearly equal in perimeters:

Orange Square Perimeter = 2+2+2+2=8
Blue Circle Circumference = 2*pi*1.273=8

Note:
Earth, Radius, Mean = 6,370,973.27862 m *
Moon, Radius, Mean = 1,738,000 m.*
Moon Radius divided by Earth Radius = 0.2728 *

* Source: Astronomic and Cosmographic Data

Let's re-phrase the above arguments **



In the diagram above, the big triangle is the same proportion and angle of the Great Pyramid, with its base angles at 51 degrees 51 minutes. If you bisect this triangle and assign a value of 1 to each base, then the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) equals phi (1.618..) and the perpendicular side equals the square root of phi. And that’s not all. A circle is drawn with it’s centre and diameter the same as the base of the large triangle. This represents the circumference of the earth. A square is then drawn to touch the outside of the earth circle. A second circle is then drawn around the first one, with its circumference equal to the perimeter of the square. (The squaring of the circle.) This new circle will actually pass exactly through the apex of the pyramid. And now the “wow”: A circle drawn with its centre at the apex of the pyramid and its radius just long enough to touch the earth circle, will have the circumference of the moon! Neat, huh! And the small triangle formed by the moon and the earth square will be a perfect 345 triangle (which doesn’t seem to mean much.)

** Source: geometry.wholesomebalance.com...

Recommend this website to your friends:


Was the golden ratio intentionally built into the Great Pyramid of Cheops?
Why would anyone intentionally build the golden ratio into a pyramid, or other structure? What was the significance of to the Egyptians? And did the ancient Egyptians intentionally design the Great Pyramid to square the circle?

The answer to these questions is uncertain since designing the Great Pyramid according to the simple rules explained by the graphic below would give the pyramid automatically (by coincidence? ) all its "magic" qualities.

The height of the Great Pyramid times 2π exactly equals the perimeter of the pyramid. This proportions result from elegant design of the pyramid with the height equal two diameters of a circle and the base equal to the circumference of the circle. Click here or on the image below to see larger picture.








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For the angle of the Great Pyramid, any theory of the base, combined with any theory of the height, yields a theoretic angle; but the angles actually proposed are the following** :

Angle of casing measured
By theory of 34 slope to 21 base
Height : circumference :: radius to circle
9 height on 10 base diagonally
7 height to 22 circumference
area of face = area of height squared
(or sine) = cotangent, and many other relations)
2 height vertical to 3 height diagonal
5 height on 4 base
51º 52' ± 2' (51.867)
51º 51' 20"
51º 51' 14.3"
51º 50' 39.1"
51º 50' 34.0"
51º 49' 38.3"

51º 40' 16.2"
51º 20' 25"


** Page 184, The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh
by Sir W.M.Flinders Petrie 1883

Comparing the Great Pyramid with the Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacan
The Pyramid of the Sun and the Great Pyramid of Egypt are almost or very nearly equal to one another in base perimeter. The Pyramid of the Sun is "almost" half the height of the Great Pyramid. There is a slight difference. The Great Pyramid is 1.03 - times larger than the base of the Pyramid of the Sun. Conversely, the base of the Pyramid of the Sun is 97% of the Great Pyramid's base.



The ratio of the base perimeter to the height:

Great Pyramid Pyramid of the Sun
6.2800001... : 1
(deviates by 0.05 % from the
6.2831853 value for 2 x pi) 12.560171... : 1
(deviates by 0.05 % from the
12.566371 value for 4 x pi)

The Great Pyramid - Metrological Standard
The Great Pyramid is generally regarded as a tomb and as grandiose memorial to the pharaoh who commissioned it. The opposing view is that of the pyramid being the culminating achievement of those who practised an advanced science in prehistory.

The Great Pyramid is a repository of universal standards, it is a model of the earth against which any standard could be confirmed and corrected if necessary.
It is exactly the imperishable standard, which the French had sought to create by the devising of the metre, but infinitely more practical and intelligent.

From classical times, the Great pyramid has always been acknowledged as having mathematical, metrological and geodetic functions. But ancient Greek and Roman writers were further removed in time from the designers of the Great Pyramid than they are from us. They had merely inherited fragments of a much older cosmology; the science in which it was founded having long since disappeared.



posted on Apr, 1 2004 @ 10:20 PM
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One culture or civilization alone did not built these magnificent buildings and structures found all over the world. And if you search back even more, all these cultures say that either Gods/Godesses or other people who left them, promising to come back, taught them all they knew.

[Edited on 1-4-2004 by Muaddib]

[Edited on 1-4-2004 by Muaddib]



posted on Apr, 5 2004 @ 06:29 PM
link   
Very interesting article to read about the great pyramid of Gizeh.

users.ev1.net...

Raises questions though...





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