Southern face of the Great Pyramid.
The base originally measured about 230.33m square.
The original height was 146.59m.
The Great Pyramid (the Pyramid of Khufu, or Cheops in Greek) at Gizeh, Egypt, demonstrates the remarkable character of its placement on the face of
Click to view larger image
The Pyramid lies in the center of gravity of the continents. It also lies in the exact center of all the land area of the world, dividing the earth's
land mass into approximately equal quarters.
The Plate XX from an original 1877 copy of
Piazzi Smyth's "Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid".
Charles Piazzi Smyth (1819-1900) was Astronomer Royal for Scotland
and a respected Scientist.
The north-south axis (31 degrees east of Greenwich) is the longest land meridian, and the east-west axis (30 degrees north) is the longest land
parallel on the globe. There is obviously only one place that these longest land-lines of the terrestrial earth can cross, and it is at the Great
Pyramid! This is incredible, one of the scores of features of this mighty structure which begs for a better explanation.
Khufu Pyramid Statistics
A total of over 2,300,000 (or only 590,712)* blocks of limestone and granite were used in its construction with the average block weighing 2.5 tons
and none weighing less than 2 tons. The large blocks used in the ceiling of the King's Chamber weigh as much as 9 tons.
Construction date (Estimated): 2589 B.C..
Construction time (Estimated): 20 years.
Total weight (Estimated): 6.5 million tons.
The estimated total weight of the structure is 6.5 million tons!
Original entrance of the Great Pyramid.
Massive blocks of limestone form a relieving arch over the entrance.
The base of the pyramid covers 13 acres, 568,500 square feet and the length of each side was originally 754 feet, but is now 745 feet.
The original height was 481 feet tall, but is now only 449 feet.
The majority of the outer casing, which was polished limestone, was removed about 600 years ago to help build cities and mosques which created a
rough, worn, and step-like appearance.
* According to Socrates G. Taseos, the actual number of stones used to build the Great Pyramid is only 590,712. In his book Back in Time 3104 B.C. to
the Great Pyramid- Egyptians Broke Their Backs to Build It- How the Great Pyramid Was Really Built he presents results of his computer calculations.
The following is derived from the book mentioned above.
The base measurements of the Great Pyramid are: north - 755.43 ft; south -
756.08 ft; east - 755.88 ft; west - 755.77 ft. These dimensions show no two
sides are identical; however, the distance between the longest and shortest
side is only 7.8 inches.
Each side is oriented almost exactly with the four Cardinal points. The
following being the estimated errors: north side 2'28" south of west; south
side 1'57" south of west; east side 5'30" west of north; and west side 2'30"
west of north.
The four corners were almost perfect right angles: north-east 90degrees 3'
2"; north-west 89 degrees 59'58"; south-east 89 deg 56'27"; and south-west
90 deg 0'33".
When completed, it rose to a height of 481.4 ft., the top 31 feet of which
are now missing. It's four sides incline at an angle of about 51deg. 51 min.
with the ground. At its base, it covers an area of about 13.1 acres. It was
built in 201 stepped tiers, which are visible because the casing stones have
been removed. It rises to the height of a modern 40-story building.
THE BEDROCK AND CORE
The pyramid is built partly upon a solid, large, bedrock core and a platform
of limestone blocks which can be seen at the northern and eastern sides. The
builder of this pyramid was very wise to choose this site because most of
the stones, with the exception of the casing stones, some granite and basalt
stones, could be cut right on the spot and in the nearby quarry. This
practical choice made it possible to reduce considerably the time and
back-breaking labor needed to drag the stones from distant quarries across
The first Step of the pyramid rests on a platform of finely finished
limestone blocks. These blocks are approximately 2.5 ft x 10 ft x 10 ft..
They project beyond the outer edges of the first Step's Casing Stones an
average of 2 feet on all sides. This platform is so flat that the official
survey of the Egyptian Government found that it was less than ½ of an inch
from being level. The removal of several platform stones showed that the
bedrock had been cut and leveled to receive each individual stone, sometimes
as deep as 1 to 2 inches.
On the north side the platform stones have been laid at an irregular angle,
each socket being carefully cut to receive the next stone. One explanation
for this irregularity of stone placement is that these northern platform
stones will have greater resistance to sliding from the downward and
horizontal pressures of the pyramid's face.
The many surveys done on the pyramid proved that the Egyptians located the
sides of the pyramid along the four Cardinal Points with extreme accuracy.
Whether they used the stars, and/or the rising and setting sun, cannot be
determined. One this is certain, that whatever method they used was direct
and very simple.
Once the sand, gravel and loose rocks had been removed, down to the solid
bedrock of the plateau, the whole pyramid site was open-cast quarried into
blocks, leaving a square core for the center of the pyramid (the core is
approximately 412.7 ft square, and rises approx. 46.25 feet high). These
blocks were then stored outside a low wall; made of mortared stone that
surrounds the core (the outside dimensions of the wall are approx. 887.3
feet square). Today there still remains the foundation of this wall on the
north, south and west sides of the pyramid, at an average distance of 65
feet from the outer edge of the base casing stone.
This core gives the pyramid stability from the downward and horizontal
forces that will develop from the superimposed loads of blocks of stones
that are piled up, as the pyramid rises. Also, from the prevailing
north-west winds that exert enormous pressures on the huge areas of the
pyramid's faces, thus increasing these forces further.
Leveling of the entire pyramid site was accomplished by flooding the area
inside the wall with water, leaving just the high spots. These them were cut
down to the level of the surface of the water. Next, some of the water was
released and the high spots again were cut down to the water's surface. This
process was repeated until the entire pyramid site, between the core and the
four walls, was leveled down to the base of the pyramid's platform.
THE CASING STONES
A few of the fine limestone casing blocks remain at the base of the northern
side and show how accurately the stones were dressed and fitted together.
The core masonry, behind the casing stones, consists of large blocks of
local limestone, quarried right on the spot, built around and over the
bedrock core. The size of this core cannot be determined, since it is
completely covered by the pyramid.
The casing stones were of highly polished white limestone, which must have
been a dazzling sight. Unlike marble, which tends to become eroded with time
and weather, limestone becomes harder and more polished.
HOW MANY BLOCKS DID IT ACTUALLY TAKE TO BUILD THE GREAT PYRAMID?
Most books and encyclopedia state that there are 2.3 million blocks of stone
in the Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops), with no mention of method used to
Socrates determined the size and weight of the blocks (a standard block),
and ran a Pascal Computer Program (a mathematical model of all the blocks of
stone needed; written by the author to optimize the sizes and weights of the
stones) to come up with the real number of blocks used. Since the volume of
passageways and internal chambers are very small compared to the high volume
of the pyramid, they are ignored at this time, just as though the pyramid
was built of solid stone blocks with mortared joints.
THE SIZE OF THE BLOCKS
The size of the blocks are based on a chance discovery in 1837 by Howard
Vyse. He found two of the original side casing blocks at the base of the
pyramid, 5 ft x 8 ft x 12 ft, with an angle of 51 degrees, 51 minutes cut on
one of the 12 ft. sides. Each of these stones weighed (5 x 8 x 12)/2000 =
39.9 tons before the face angle was cut. These originally were used for the
side casing stones of Step No. 1, in the Pascal computer program. The sizes
of all the other blocks were scaled from these two original blocks of the
remaining Steps 2 to 201.
THE GREAT PYRAMID'S DIMENSIONS AND THEIR LAYOUT
One acre = 43,560 sq. ft, or 208.71 feet on a side.
For the pyramid's base, length = width = (square root of 13.097144 acres) x
208.71 feet = 755.321 feet. Or 755.321 x 12 = 9063.85 inches.
Height = (755.321 x tangent 51deg 51 min)/2 = 480.783 feet. Or 480.783 x 12
= 5769.403 inches.
For the cap stone base: length = width = (32.18 x 2)/tangent 51deg 51 min =
The average size of a pyramid stone = (5 x 8 x 12)
The average side measurement, at the base = 759.3 ft.
The height used was 201 steps high, or 480 feet. (This is minus the height
of the Capstone, which was one piece in itself.
The number reached by the Pascal computer program was 603,728 blocks used.
The solid core takes up the space of 13,016 stones.
So, the actual number of stones used to build the Great Pyramid is 603,728 -
13,016 = 590,712.
This figure is (2,300,000 - 590,712) = 1,709,288 blocks less than the often
published 2.3 million value.
NUMBER OF VARIOUS BLOCKS OF STONE USED TO BUILD THE GREAT PYRAMID
Number of platform blocks used (2.5 ft x 10 ft square), equals (759.3 x
759.3(pyramid base)) - (412.7 x 412.7(core base))/(10 x 10(platform block
base)) = 4,062.
Number of CORNER Casing stones where the pyramid faces meet equals 201 steps
x 4 sides = 804.
Number of side casing stones equals ((244 x 127) + 8,953) = 39,941.
Due to Bedrock Core, in the center of Step 1 through 10, the total number of
blocks needed is reduced by 13,016.
THE NUMBER OF ALL BLOCKS BEHIND THE CASING STONES EQUALS
(590,712 - 804 - 39,941) = 549,967.
PLACING THE BLOCKS
The average number of blocks that have to be placed each day equals (590,712
blocks)/(20years x 364.25 days) = 81 blocks per day.
If 10 crews of 300 men work on each of the four sides of the pyramid, then
the totals of 40 crews and 12,000 men will be needed. Each of the crews will
be responsible to place 81/40 = 2 blocks per day.
The workload passes through three phases of decreasing difficulty, which are
determined by the weights of the heaviest blocks:
Steps 1 through 21 (60.59 to 27.24 tons)
Steps 22 through 136 (17.66 to 6.44 tons)
Steps 127 through 201 (3.05 to 2.63 tons)
As the weight of the blocks decrease, Step to Step, the sizes of the drag
crews will decrease. However, when this happens, the number of blocks needed
to be dragged each day can be reduced because one large block can be dragged
and cut into several smaller blocks that are needed.
As the pyramid rises there is less space for the crews to work in and fewer
block to be placed. In other words, the number of workers that will be
needed depends on three factors of: weight of blocks, number of blocks to be
placed, and the working space available.
Back in Time 3104 B.C. to the Great Pyramid- Egyptians Broke Their Backs to Build It- How the Great Pyramid Was Really Built
© 1990 by Socrates Taseos
Related Books on the Ancient Egypt
Geometry of the Great Pyramid
DIMENSIONS of Great Pyramid
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All rights reserved. No part of this website, including text and images, may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means without the express
prior written permission of aiwaz.net_institute. Reprinted with permission.
If the calculations concerning the royal cubit are correct the main dimensions of the pyramid should also prove that. The approximate dimensions of
the pyramid are calculated by Petrie according to the remains of the sockets in the ground for the casing stones whose remains are still at the top of
the pyramid, and the angle 51° 52' ± 2' of the slopes. The base of 9069 inches is approximately 440 royal cubits (the difference is 9 inches which
is not a remarkable difference if we consider the whole dimension and consider that the employed data represent only an estimation of the real values)
whereas the calculated height, 5776 inches, is precisely 280 royal cubits. The relation 440:280 can be reduced to 11:7, which gives an approximation
of the half value of Pi.
Squaring the Circle
The circle and the square are
united through the circumference:
area of square: 440x440=193600
area of circle:28x28x22/7=246400
The engagement of Pi value in the main dimensions suggests also a very accurate angle of 51° 52' ± 2' of the slopes which expresses the value of Pi.
Another coincidence is the relation between the height of the pyramid's triangle in relation to a half of the side of the pyramid, since it appears
to be the Golden Section, or the specific ratio ruling this set of proportions, F = (sqr(5)+1)/2 = 1.618 = 356:220. This ratio, 356:220 = 89:55 is
also contained in the first of Fibonacci Series:
1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 ...
A single composition contains two apparently contradicting irrational numbers P and F, without disrupting each other. This appears to be completely
opposed to the classical architectural canon which postulates that in 'good' composition no two different geometrical systems of proportions may be
mixed in order to maintain the purity of design. But analysis of other architectural and artistic forms suggested that the greatest masters skillfully
juggled the proportional canons without losing the coherent system, for they knew that these systems can be interconnected if the path that links them
is found. That is obvious In the case of the Great Pyramid where two different principles are interweaved without interference ruling different angles
of the composition, which is most importantly a most simple one, namely 11:7, a most simple ratio obviously signifying such infinite mysteries as the
value of P and most 'natural' value of F. In spite of common miss-understanding of architectural composition, the most mysterious and praised
compositions are very simple but not devoid of anthropomorphic appeal, since everything is made out of human proportions, just like Vitruvius
describing the rations of the human body, very simple and very clean. The numbers 7 and in 11 are successive factors in the second of Fibonacci
progressions that approximate geometry of the pentagram:
1 3 4 7 11 18 29 47 76 123 ...
The summary of the selected main mean dimensions is:
dimension b. inch m royal cub. palm digit
base 9068.8 230.35 440 3,080 12,320
height 5776 146.71 280 1,960 7,840
sum 720 5,040 20,160
slope 7343.2 186.52 356 2,492 9,968
edge 8630.4 219.21 418 2,926 11,704
The main source of all kinds of delusions and speculations about our mythical past for the western man comes of course from Plato. With the myth of
Atlantis he planted the necessary seed of mythical Eden, a culture of high intelligence that lived before the known history. If Plato received any
wisdom from the ancient Egypt it could perhaps be traced in the canon of numbers that is so latently present throughout his work, but never on the
surface. This canon seems to appear in the descriptions of his fantastic cities where everything is most carefully calculated and proportioned. The
topic of Plato's Laws is the description of the ideal state called Magnesia which is entirely composed out of the mysterious number 5,040.
The distance* when Earth is closest to Sun (perihelion) is 147x106 km, which is translated into royal cubits 280x109, hinting at the height of the
280 royal cubits.
The above article comes from aiwaz.net_institute - Great Pyramid and Giza plateau
and is Copyright © 2001-2003 aiwaz.net_institute.
All rights reserved. No part of this article, including text and images, may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means without the express
prior written permission of aiwaz.net_institute. Reprinted with permission.
* Related links: Astronomic & Cosmographic Data, Nasa site with planetary data
Do not miss this web site: aiwaz.net_institute - Great Pyramid and Giza plateau
Find out more amazing facts about the GREAT PYRAMID: Position of King's Chamber, Queen's Chamber, Subterranean Chamber; SECOND PYRAMID: Dimensions
of Pyramid, Great Chamber, Coffer, Lower Chamber; THIRD PYRAMID: Dimensions of Pyramid, Chambers,MATHESIS of Giza Plateau.
The Golden Ratio & Squaring the Circle in the Great Pyramid
A straight line is said to have been cut in extreme and mean ratio when, as the whole line is to the greater segment, so is the greater to the less.
The extreme and mean ratio is also known as the golden ratio.
If the smaller part = 1, and larger part = G, the golden ratio requires that
G is equal approximately 1.6180
Does the Great Pyramid contain the Golden Ratio?
Assuming that the height of the GP = 146.515 m, and base = 230.363 m, and using simple math we find that half of the base is 115.182 m and the "slant
height" is 186.369 m
Dividing the "slant height" (186.369m) by "half base" (115.182m) gives = 1.6180, which is practically equal to the golden ration!
The earth/moon relationship is the only one in our solar system that contains this unique golden section ratio that "squares the circle". Along with
this is the phenomenon that the moon and the sun appear to be the same size, most clearly noticed during an eclipse. This too is true only from
earth's vantage point
No other planet/moon relationship in our solar system can make this claim.
Although the problem of squaring the circle was proven mathematically impossible in the 19th century (as pi, being irrational, cannot be exactly
measured), the Earth, the moon, and the Great Pyramid, are all coming about as close as you can get to the solution!
If the base of the Great Pyramid is equated with the diameter of the earth, then the radius of the moon can be generated by subtracting the radius of
the earth from the height of the pyramid (see the picture below).
Click here to view larger picture.
Also the square (in orange), with the side equal to the radius of the Earth, and the circle (in blue), with radius equal to the radius of the Earth
plus the radius of the moon, are very nearly equal in perimeters:
Orange Square Perimeter = 2+2+2+2=8
Blue Circle Circumference = 2*pi*1.273=8
Earth, Radius, Mean = 6,370,973.27862 m *
Moon, Radius, Mean = 1,738,000 m.*
Moon Radius divided by Earth Radius = 0.2728 *
* Source: Astronomic and Cosmographic Data
Let's re-phrase the above arguments **
In the diagram above, the big triangle is the same proportion and angle of the Great Pyramid, with its base angles at 51 degrees 51 minutes. If you
bisect this triangle and assign a value of 1 to each base, then the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) equals phi (1.618..) and the
perpendicular side equals the square root of phi. And thats not all. A circle is drawn with its centre and diameter the same as the base of the
large triangle. This represents the circumference of the earth. A square is then drawn to touch the outside of the earth circle. A second circle is
then drawn around the first one, with its circumference equal to the perimeter of the square. (The squaring of the circle.) This new circle will
actually pass exactly through the apex of the pyramid. And now the wow: A circle drawn with its centre at the apex of the pyramid and its radius
just long enough to touch the earth circle, will have the circumference of the moon! Neat, huh! And the small triangle formed by the moon and the
earth square will be a perfect 345 triangle (which doesnt seem to mean much.)
** Source: geometry.wholesomebalance.com...
Recommend this website to your friends:
Was the golden ratio intentionally built into the Great Pyramid of Cheops?
Why would anyone intentionally build the golden ratio into a pyramid, or other structure? What was the significance of to the Egyptians? And did the
ancient Egyptians intentionally design the Great Pyramid to square the circle?
The answer to these questions is uncertain since designing the Great Pyramid according to the simple rules explained by the graphic below would give
the pyramid automatically (by coincidence? ) all its "magic" qualities.
The height of the Great Pyramid times 2π exactly equals the perimeter of the pyramid. This proportions result from elegant design of the pyramid
with the height equal two diameters of a circle and the base equal to the circumference of the circle. Click here or on the image below to see larger
For the angle of the Great Pyramid, any theory of the base, combined with any theory of the height, yields a theoretic angle; but the angles actually
proposed are the following** :
Angle of casing measured
By theory of 34 slope to 21 base
Height : circumference :: radius to circle
9 height on 10 base diagonally
7 height to 22 circumference
area of face = area of height squared
(or sine) = cotangent, and many other relations)
2 height vertical to 3 height diagonal
5 height on 4 base
51º 52' ± 2' (51.867)
51º 51' 20"
51º 51' 14.3"
51º 50' 39.1"
51º 50' 34.0"
51º 49' 38.3"
51º 40' 16.2"
51º 20' 25"
** Page 184, The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh
by Sir W.M.Flinders Petrie 1883
Comparing the Great Pyramid with the Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacan
The Pyramid of the Sun and the Great Pyramid of Egypt are almost or very nearly equal to one another in base perimeter. The Pyramid of the Sun is
"almost" half the height of the Great Pyramid. There is a slight difference. The Great Pyramid is 1.03 - times larger than the base of the Pyramid
of the Sun. Conversely, the base of the Pyramid of the Sun is 97% of the Great Pyramid's base.
The ratio of the base perimeter to the height:
Great Pyramid Pyramid of the Sun
6.2800001... : 1
(deviates by 0.05 % from the
6.2831853 value for 2 x pi) 12.560171... : 1
(deviates by 0.05 % from the
12.566371 value for 4 x pi)
The Great Pyramid - Metrological Standard
The Great Pyramid is generally regarded as a tomb and as grandiose memorial to the pharaoh who commissioned it. The opposing view is that of the
pyramid being the culminating achievement of those who practised an advanced science in prehistory.
The Great Pyramid is a repository of universal standards, it is a model of the earth against which any standard could be confirmed and corrected if
It is exactly the imperishable standard, which the French had sought to create by the devising of the metre, but infinitely more practical and
From classical times, the Great pyramid has always been acknowledged as having mathematical, metrological and geodetic functions. But ancient Greek
and Roman writers were further removed in time from the designers of the Great Pyramid than they are from us. They had merely inherited fragments of a
much older cosmology; the science in which it was founded having long since disappeared.