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Nobody...I mean no one will dominate the World.
VANGA: Russia Will Dominate The World!
Russia warns Ukraine that US nuclear fuel will not work in Ukrainian nuclear power plants,
originally posted by: HeavenlyAngel
Maybe you are right,so many billions of years of existence can make you tired sometimes
originally posted by: Justmea
reply to post by HeavenlyAngel
ahahahah Go you oh mighty person
Well Nuclear Plants.....
Russia and Ukraine are discussing the creating of a joint venture for the conversion and enrichment of uranium on Russian soil, the head of Russia's state nuclear power corporation Rosatom, Sergei Kirienko, has told the press. The two countries already have a JV in Ukraine for the fabrication of nuclear fuel, in which Ukraine holds the controlling stake. If the enrichment JV in Russia is set up, Russia will have control, Kirienko said. Ukrainian Energy and Coal Industry Minister Yuriy Boiko has confirmed that the countries are interested in integration in the field of converting and enriching uranium, as Ukraine has undertaken not to perform such operations at home. (Interfax Oct. 4, 2012)
Ukraine's 15 nuclear power units at four nuclear power plants are operated by Energoatom, the country's nuclear power utility. Following the addition of two new VVER-1000 reactors in 2005, capacity increased to 13,168 which was 26.3% of the country’s total installed capacity. Energoatom expects nuclear to retain its contribution of 50-52% of Ukraine's electricity in 2020. All are Russian VVER types, two being 440 MWe V-312 models and the rest the larger 1000 MWe units – two early models and the rest V-320s. Power reactors have operated in Ukraine since 1977, and over 300 reactor years of operating experience have been accumulated. Load factors have increased steadily and reached 81.4% in 2004. A decrease of the country's load factor after 2005 is related to restrictions imposed by the national electricity grid. Early in 2010 it was at 73%. "Operational disturbances" at nuclear plants dropped from 71 in 1999 to 21 in 2009.
Original design lifetime of the Russian reactors was 30 years. Energoatom initially planned to extend the lifetimes of Rovno 1 & 2 and South Ukraine 1 by 15 years and final checking of the pressure vessels (for embrittlement) and the internals of all three units was in 2008-9. A 20-year extension of the operating licences for Rovno 1&2 was granted by the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine (SNRI or SNRC) in December 2010. Energoatom said that more than US$ 300 million had been invested in upgrading the two units since 2004, in collaboration with IAEA. Energoatom has said that Rovno 1&2 are pilot facilities and that it plans to extend all reactor lifetimes similarly. In mid-2012 it announced that the 11 oldest 1000 MWe reactors are to have 20-year life extensions by 2030. In February 2013 the SNRI said that South Ukraine 1 could have life extension after a major upgrade during 2013, and in October it approved plans for a ten-year extension to 2023. In 2014 SNRC was assessing unit 2 of the plant preliminary to a 300-day outage from May 2015 to upgrade it.
In March 2013 the European Bank for Reconstruction & Development (EBRD) announced a EUR 300 million loan for comprehensive reactor safety upgrading to the end of 2017, matching EUR 300 million from Euratom. The EUR 1.4 billion project will include up to 87 safety measures addressing design safety issues comprising the replacement of equipment in safety relevant systems, improvements of instrumentation and control for safety relevant systems and the introduction of organisational improvements for accident management.
The life extension program is being challenged under the UN Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context – informally known as the Espoo Convention – which has been ratified by 44 countries and the EU. The convention comes under the Economic Commission for Europe and the challenge is on the basis of inadequate environmental assessment.
Ukraine's best-known nuclear power plant was Chernobyl (Chornobyl in Ukrainian). This had the only RBMK type reactors in the country. Unit 4 was destroyed in the 1986 accident, unit 2 was shut down after a turbine hall fire in 1991, unit 1 was closed in 1997 and unit 3 closed at the end of 2000 due to international pressure.