I will post my progress here, and how/why I found what I found.
11. spring equinox
12. fall equinox
13. rig veda
14. still looking for this one... I'll update
1. I noticed that the symbol looks very much like a Sanskrit letter, and found out it bore a huge similarity with a Devanagari transcription.
Searching the Devanagari page of wiki gave me the answer. That symbol (Om, or Aum) is one of the most important in hindouism, it is considered the
original, the initial, hence why it is nr. 1 here.
2. It is the symbol of earth. See this
page. There will be other planets later, you can easily consult
wiki (or any other) to see those symbols.
3. It is the astrological symbol of the aquarius, simply (see most horoscopes)
4. 3.14 is self explanatory
5. symbol of Venus (also of the woman, associated with Venus)
6. astrological symbol of leo
7. planet mars symbol
8. planet jupiter symbol
9. it is the astrological symbol of a comet
10. phi, the gold number, or 1.61
11. spring equinox can be visualized with the ascending symbol (sun going up)
12. fall equinox, in the same way as above
13. i don't know why, but as the answer was given here... maybe something to do with the story of the rig veda itself...