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The entire Editorial Board of The International Journal of Theoretical Physics, amongst which sits Roger Penrose, has acknowledged that two papers I sent it for publication, contain no technical errors.
Originally posted by S.J.Crothers
Thankyou for carefully studying my posts.
must have read my papers to know whats in them!Then they decided not to send them to review but instead to reject them
But the truth will ultimately prevail, despite all attempts to silence the truth.
Originally posted by Albertarocks
I just crunched some numbers and yuppers... the guy is right. There are no black holes.
Cygnus X-1 (abbreviated Cyg X-1) is a well known galactic X-ray source in the constellation Cygnus. It was discovered in 1964 during a rocket flight and is one of the strongest X-ray sources seen from Earth, producing a peak X-ray flux of 2.3 × 10−23 Wm−2Hz−1. Cygnus X-1 was the first X-ray source widely accepted to be a black hole candidate and it remains among the most studied astronomical objects in its class. It is now estimated to have a mass about 8.7 times the mass of the Sun and has been shown to be too compact to be any known kind of normal star or other likely object besides a black hole. If so, the radius of its event horizon is probably about 26 km.
Cygnus X-1 belongs to a high-mass X-ray binary system about 6000 light years from the Sun that includes a blue supergiant variable star designated HDE 226868 which it orbits at about 0.2 AU, or 20% of the distance from the Earth to the Sun. A stellar wind from the star provides material for an accretion disk around the X-ray source. Matter in the inner disk is heated to millions of kelvin (K), generating the observed X-rays. A pair of jets, arranged perpendicular to the disk, are carrying part of the infalling material away into interstellar space
Ever since Albert Einstein came up with his general theory of relativity, black holes has been central to our knowledge of the Universe.
Now experts say they have shown that the theoretical phenomenon, whose gravitational pull is thought to hold galaxies together, exist "beyond any reasonable doubt".
The team of scientists spent 16 years studying the existence of a super massive black hole thought to be at the centre of our galaxy, the Milky Way.
While the black hole itself is invisible to the eye, the team proved its existence by tracking the motions of 28 stars circling around it.
Just as swirling leaves caught in a gust of wind can provide clues about air currents, so the stars' movements reveal information about forces at work at the galactic centre.
The observations show that the stars orbit a central concentration of mass four million times greater than that of the Sun, claim the team from the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, near Munich, Germany.
"Undoubtedly the most spectacular aspect of our long term study is that it has delivered what is now considered to be the best empirical evidence that super-massive black holes do really exist," said study leader Professor Reinhard Genzel.
"The stellar orbits in the galactic centre show that the central mass concentration of four million solar masses must be a black hole, beyond any reasonable doubt."
Originally posted by platosallegory
reply to post by S.J.Crothers
Great posts and I have a couple of questions.
Could Ric=0 apply to a perfect vacuum? Would black holes then exist in our universe because we live in a false vacuum?
Also, what do you think about Randall-Sundrum? It could tie into this because gravity is it's own cause. Randall-Sundrum is a theory by Harvard Theoretical Physicist Lisa Randall and Raman Sundrum fron John Hopkins.
It says we live in 5 dimensions. Four dimensions of space and one of time. They think these 4 dimensions are local and exist on what they call the weak brane but the 5th is a gravity brane and is non-local. So gravity seeps into or onto are brane.
So basically Ric=0 would apply to a perfect vacuum while we live in a false vacuum and I think this might fit with the holographic principle as well.
Great post and S&F.
Practically, it is impossible to make a perfect vacuum. A perfect vacuum is defined as a region in space without any particles.
The problem is that to maintain a vacuum in a region you have to shield it from the environment. It is not difficult to make a container that would prevent atoms from entering the region.
The first problem is that the container itself will radiate photons (which in turn can create electron positron pairs in the vacuum) if it is not kept at a temperature of 0°K. Note that a perfect vacuum has by definition a temperature of 0°K. reaching 0 °K is practically impossible.
The second problem is that there are weakly interacting particles that could enter the region. No matter how thick the walls of the container are, there is always a finite probability that, say, a neutrino would enter the region.
A perfect vacuum is not in the least obtainable in a laboratory; much of outer space is supposed to consist of an almost perfect vacuum, with a small number of molecules per cubic metre. As well as virtual particles continuously appearing.
• “Schwarzschild’s solution” is not Schwarzschild’s solution. Schwarzschild’s actual solution does not predict black holes. The quantity ‘r’ appearing in the so-called “Schwarzschild solution” is not a distance of any kind. This simple fact completely subverts all claims for black holes.
• Despite claims for discovery of black holes, nobody has ever found a black hole; no infinitely dense point-mass singularity and no event horizon have ever been found. There is no physical evidence for the existence of infinitely dense point-masses.
• It takes an infinite amount of observer time to verify the presence of an event horizon, but nobody has been and nobody will be around for an infinite amount of time. No observer, no observing instruments, no photons, no matter can be present in a spacetime that by construction contains no matter.
• The black hole is fictitious and so there are no black hole generated gravitational waves. The international search for black holes and their gravitational waves is ill-fated.
• The Michell-Laplace dark body is not a black hole. Newton’s theory of gravitation does not predict black holes. General Relativity does not predict black holes. Black holes were spawned by (incorrect) theory, not by observation. The search for black holes is destined to find none.
• No celestial body has ever been observed to undergo irresistible gravitational collapse. There is no laboratory evidence for irresistible gravitational collapse. Infinitely dense point-mass singularities howsoever formed cannot be reconciled with Special Relativity, i.e. they violate Special Relativity, and therefore violate General Relativity.
• General Relativity cannot account for the simple experimental fact that two fixed bodies will approach one another upon release. There are no known solutions to Einstein’s field equations for two or more masses and there is no existence theorem by which it can even be asserted that his field equations contain latent solutions for such configurations of matter. All claims for black hole interactions are invalid.
• Einstein’s gravitational waves are fictitious; Einstein’s gravitational energy cannot be localised; so the international search for Einstein’s gravitational waves is destined to detect nothing. No gravitational waves have been detected.
• Einstein’s field equations violate the experimentally well-established usual conservation of energy and momentum, and therefore violate the experimental evidence.
In an audience of theoretical physicists there was stunned silence—and not a single question.
Sagittarius A* (pronounced "A-star") is a region in the center of our galaxy, approximately as wide as the orbit of Pluto, containing 3.7 million solar masses of material. Located near the galactic center, Sagittarius A* is suspected by astronomers to be a supermassive black hole, serving as the center of gravity for the entire galaxy. Sagittarius A* is closely orbited by at least a dozen stars, the trajectories of which have been used to estimate its mass. It may even be orbited by the first observed intermediate-mass black hole, GCIRS 13E, which is estimated at 1,300 solar masses.
As the mass of a black hole increases, the radius of its event horizon increases at a linear rate, but the density decreases as the cube of the radius. So, while black holes like Sagittarius A* are very massive, when you count the huge area of the event horizon, estimated at 6.25 light-hours (45 AU) or about 4.2 billion miles, the average density of the hole is no greater than that of air! Stellar-mass black holes have much greater densities behind their event horizon.
Sagittarius A* is located approximately 25,000 light years away, or half a galactic radius, at the galaxy's center. It probably formed early on in the galaxy's history. We observe supermassive black holes like Sagittarius A* in the process of being formed in other, very distant galaxies. These phenomena are called quasars and blazars.
Because the central singularity in a supermassive black hole is located so far from the event horizon, an astronaut falling into it would not experience spaghettification until deep inside the hole. The inside of a black hole would be a strange place -- with light orbiting the hole at a rapid rate, you would be constantly treated to a repetitive blur of objects in its grasp. Light from the outside would first look like only a hemisphere, with darkness all behind, then the hemisphere would get progressively smaller, becoming a little circle and eventually a point. Falling into a black hole would not be fun!