Millions of Americans learned in grade school that oil deposits originated in the age of dinosaurs, when vegetation in lush forests was buried and
subjected to high heat and pressure. Those extreme conditions supposedly transformed the hydrocarbons in vegetation into the hydrocarbons of
"That's nonsense," snapped Thomas Gold, a scientist at Cornell University. "There's not a shred of evidence from chemistry, geology, or any other
science to support it. It has no place in textbooks and school classrooms."
Oil is often called a 'fossil' fuel; the idea being that it comes from formerly living organisms. This may have been plausible back when oil wells
were drilled into the fossil layers of the earth's crust; but today, great quantities of oil are found in deeper wells that are found below the level
of any fossils. How could then oil have come from fossils, or decomposed former living matter, if it exists in rock formations far below layers of
fossils the evidence of formerly living organisms? It must not come from living matter at all!
Tar-coated comets and oily asteroids
The idea that complex hydrocarbons (the main components of petroleum oil) are a natural part of the Earth's crust should come as no surprise to
scientists who study comets and asteroids. Some of the meteorites that fall to Earth are rich in tar-like hydrocarbons. Comets such as Halley and
Hale-Bopp are thought to have a skin of tar-like material covering a "dirty snowball" -- like an ice cream dipped in chocolate.
The early Earth was made of the same stuff as comets and asteroids, so the presence of hydrocarbons deep within the Earth is to be expected. It used
to be thought that the fierce heat deep underground was sufficient to break up any hydrocarbon molecules. However, Russian scientists have
demonstrated that the enormous pressures prevent this.
Even if the Earth did not manage to retain its original supply of hydrocarbons it is likely that the rain of comets, space dust and asteroids over
billions of years would have kept the crust of the Earth topped off with the raw ingredients for oil.
Hydrocarbon sources can be found at great depths below the surface, not a few miles, but a few hundred miles. The deep-Earth sources of hydrocarbons
are still wor-king to this day, pumping tons of petroleum and methane gas up through the deep Earth's cracks and pores to the shallow sedimentary
levels. It is here that drilling rigs access the upwelling that has been vertically dammed into reservoirs. Hydrocarbons did not come from rotting
prehistoric plants; they were here a few billion years before life occurred.
Professor Gold discusses the latest space research in-formation, much of which he discovered or pro-posed, which confirms that hydrocarbons are
present on lifeless heavenly bodies such as moons, asteroids, comets, and, of course, the gas giants Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptu-ne. In fact,
the blue coloration of planet Uranus is the result of methane, a so-called fossil fuel. As Gold comments,"I am sure there are no big stagnant
swamps on Titan or Pluto."
To support the abiogenic theory, Gold notes several points:
1) The geographical patterns that emerge from the oil fields, whether in the Middle East or Indonesia, all exhibit a correspondence to deep-Earth
geological structure. This is in stark contrast to the haphazard deposition we find with surface life, and its subsequent fossils, which have never
exhibited such patterns.
2) Hydrocarbons from a particular oil field do not exhibit chemical changes as the depth of their extraction increases. But the fossils above them
have constantly changing biologi-cal "signatures," which relate to their particular paleontological periods.
3) Hydrocarbons are found in geographic areas where the amount of prehistoric life known to be at that location could never have provided the
quantities of hydrocarbons involved. Most surface life is comprised of 90 percent water and 10 percent organic compounds. So, even if that 10 percent
that is organic compounds had been entirely converted to "fossil fuels," it would not come close to the mass of hydrocarbons already extracted
during the last 130 years.
4) Because hydrocarbons are so consistent, the use of distinct trace metals can be used to identify their geographic: origin.
5) The existing petroleum reservoirs are refilling themselves - from the bottom! Gold ex-plains: "The phenomenon of petroleum reservoirs that seem
to refill themselves is widely reported, notably in the Middle East and along the U.S. Gulf Coast. I regard these occurrences as strong evidence for
the deep-Earth gas theory."
[Edited on 16-3-2004 by kinglizard]