H1N1 was NOT "Swine flu" H1N1 was the 1918 Influenza pandemic (A strain, aka Spanish flu). Additional 1951 outbreak.
mutates external proteins H protein Hemagglutinin, N protein Neuraminidase, human endemic; 3-5% mortality(m), 50Million dead (500K US); US army camp
5%m, brit army India white 9.6%m indian 21.9%m, fiji 14%m in 16days, Alaska natives 33%m (never contracted flu before);
A (H&N subtypes, antigenic changes: gradual evolution [drift] or abrupt [shift]), B ([drift] seasonal epidemic, lower mortality) & C (mild) types
H2N2 was the 1957 Asian flu A pandemic. 3M dead (70K US), from '56 China ducks+humans, besides mutate external protein exhibited reassortment/mixed
genes with avian virus for new surface proteins (hence H2N2), of bird flu extinct 2005; RNA segments, bsl-3 prevents airborn exposure; possible 1889
russian flu 1M dead
oct'04-feb'05 US distributed about 4600 samples A/Japan/305/57 H2N2 worldwide in proficiency panels for quality control assessment, specimens
distributed by the College of American Pathologists and other providers;
* H3N2 is the 1968 Hong Kong flu A (aka swine flu, *reassortment) pandemic; 10% mortality, 1M dead (34K US [400K US todate persistant, 90%m elderly]),
(? lesser 0.5%m?, both H2N2 & H3N2 contain avian flu [H5N1] genes, 1M dead)
it was modified (in SE asia) allowing it to cross over to infect-kill humans. By 1991 H3N2, SWINE FLU, was only 1% resistant to standard antiviral
drugs... by 2005 swine flu was 91% resistant and by 2009 it is 100% resistant. H3N2 virus can remain infectious for weeks in the open environment...
1975 low pathogenic in Wisconsin duck & goose, enzootic in many bird populations.
68 single measles vaccine
72-76 grid/aids (public 1981), antiretroviral (HighlyActiveART) and monoclonal (MAb, [naziesk ascites harvest]) vs recombinant (viral gene segment
engineering-fermentation [classified apoptosis cancer research]) antibody cancer therapies
1977 russian flu A/ussr/90/77 H1N1, low mort, possible reappear due to vaccines after 20yr absence (identical to '50s H1N1 A); '76 fort dix outbreak
("accidental refrigerator release");
'88 MMR vaccination intro
1995 H7N7 is the duck virus (Netherlands 2003 fatal)
1997 H5N1 is the '59 chicken virus; 1968 H3N2 Hong Kong flu by 1993 this HK flu had reassorted with 1968 avian H3Nx & 1930 swine strains into
today's lethal H3N2 swine flu version that has steadily increased resistance to standard antiviral drugs.
After the 1997 Bird flu (H5N1, A/Hong Kong/156/97 and A/Chicken/Hong Kong/258/97) broke out in Hong Kong, on December 28, 1997 veterinary authorities
began to slaughter all (1.6 Million) chickens present in wholesale facilities or vendors within Hong Kong, and importation of chickens from
neighboring areas was stopped. Because the case-fatality rates were 18% in children and 57% in adults older than 17 years.
A year after the '97 Avian-Bird flu (H5N1) epidemic several countries had severe local outbreaks or epidemics of interpandemic variant A/Sydney/5/97
(H3N2)-like viruses (i.e. Swine flu). currently 69%m (esp Indonesia and Thailand '06);
origin and reassortment of h1n1
Replikins are short fragments of the genomes of infectious organisms, which have been found to be related quantitatively to rapid replication and
2006 Antiviral drugs (e.g., oseltamivir, amantadine, rimantadine, zanamivir)
The annual flu kills about 36K humans in the US yearly. There are over 100 subtypes (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov...
) of the
Influenza A virus.
In 2007 hospital mistakes were the 4th leading cause of death @ 97K; in 2003: 1st was heart disease 654K, 2 cancer 550K, 3 stroke 150K, 4 chronic
lower resp 123K, 5 accident 108K, 6 diabetes 72K, 7 Alzheimer's 65K, 8 influenza/pneumonia 61K.
Spanish flu (Orthomyxoviridae RNA virus, Influenza A strain, aka H1N1) 1918-1920 was the pandemic that killed about 100M
) (Patterson, KD; Pyle GF [Spring 1991]. "The geography and mortality of the 1918 influenza pandemic".
Bull Hist Med. 65 : 4–21.) ref1 (www.influenzareport.com...
(i.e. 1914-1918 WW1 killed about 37M (27M civilian) and the 1347-1351 Bubonic Plague [Yersinia pestis bacteria] killed about 75M with 30-75%
mortality, ebola 90% mortality.)
About half the world's population including 1/4 of the US was infected, mortality est 5%. (i.e. Influenza may have killed as many as 25M in its first
25 weeks, in contrast AIDS killed 25M in its first 25 years.)