We hear about Lasers, particle beams and microwave weapons and how they are changing our future warfare, but there are few if any comprehensive
sources of information that can tell those interested in such things what is actually going on in the world or Directed Energy Weapons (DEW's) today.
To that end, the following is a list of currently active DEW programs along with a few details concerning each.
When I wrote the post entitled Lockheed-Martin F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF)
I received several requests to provide more information on DEW's, specifically the solid state laser being developed for the F-35 Joint Strike
In response to these requests I submit the following for your reading and subsequent discourse.
Please note that some of the information and images you'll see in this thread are already posted elsewhere on ATS, but in an effort to compile and
homogenize all available information on this subject some repetition is inevitable.
Directed Energy Weapons, An ATS Analysis & Discussion:
Directed Energy Weapons or DEW's have been the fantasy of Hollywood sci-fi movies, the dream of military planners and now reality in labs and test
sites from MIT to White Sands and Livermore.
The way war is waged is soon to encounter a paradigm shift brought on by the ability to attack a target at light speed or near light speed - the
advantage of which is that a soldier can establish a visual identification and kill with no time lag from ID to shoot nor from the trigger pull to the
destruction of the target.
There are 3 general classes of DEWs: LASER, Radio Frequency or RF and Energy Particle Beams, it is not my point to hit on every minute detail of the
listed military programs or their associated science, but rather to give a brief description of each system so as to help facilitate further
discussion by ATS members.
Laser: Acronym for Light Amplification (by) Stimulated Emission (of) Radiation. A device that produces a coherent beam of optical radiation.
The general types of lasers are chemical and solid state, which can be either pulsed or continuous.
Lasers are the first known DEW's to become operational on the US's tactical attack platforms. Significant progress has already been made in
Boeing's Airborne Laser (ABL) program, underway since 1992 as well as Northrop Grumman/TRW's Tactical High Energy Laser (THEL). These programs
promise to give the US military a credible "boost~phase" defense against theater ballistic missiles.
Radio Frequency: Includes High Power Microwave (HPM), Electromagnetic (EM) Radiation,and Radio Frequency (RF). This class of weapon can
unleash in a flash as much electrical power... (2 billion watts or more)... as the Hoover Dam generates in 24 hours. This energy pulse moving at the
speed of light and impervious to bad weather, can destroy any electronics within it's range. It does this by short-circuiting internal electrical
connections, wrecking memory chips, ruining computer motherboards and generally frying all electronic components not built to withstand such powerful
Energy Particle Beam: There are two broad types of particle-beam weapons: the charged-particle beam weapon and the neutral-particle beam
weapon. These weapons theoretically can range from being able to fry electronics to literally disintegrating it's target.
Laser Weapons / Sub-Category: Chemical Lasers
A chemical laser gets it's energy from a series of chemical reactions by mixing gases to obtain excited atoms. Weapons grade chemical lasers are
frequently Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser, also known as COILs, another chemical laser used in high power laser weapons is the deuterium fluoride laser.
An example of a COIL is the AirBorne Laser, an example of a deuterium fluoride laser is the THEL.
Current technology allows for greater power to be exerted using a chemical laser than a solid state laser, however the drawback is that chemical
lasers are usually quite large and are in their infancy stage as far as making them mobile due to their size and weight.
Because of the size and weight issues, expect solid state lasers to take over nearly all weapons type functions when the technology improves to the
point where they are able to acheive similar power to the large chemical lasers of today.
ABL - Airborne Laser:
Boeing is developing a weapon system that uses a COIL type laser onboard a 747-400F to shoot down Scud-type missiles in their boost phase. Called the
Airborne Laser (ABL), the weapon system detects and tracks a missile seconds after launch, and then points and fires a laser with enough energy to
destroy the missile -- leaving potentially lethal chemical, biological and nuclear warhead debris on or near the territory where they were
For those who think that Lasers are rendered useless is air turbulence, moisture and dust, think again.
While it is true, heavy cloud cover or a great volume of dust does impede the performance of these lasers, one technology provider to the ABL has a
"fix" for smaller atmospheric disturbances and anomalies.
On February 26, 2003 the diode-pumped solid-state laser used for targeting the ABL (called the BILL for Beacon Illuminator Laser) was delivered to the
Missile Defense Agency?s Airborne Laser (ABL) program.
The BILL?s laser beam illuminates a small spot on the target missile and measures the distortion of reflected light caused by turbulence in the air.
This information enables a deformable mirror to make compensating corrections to ABL?s megawatt-class chemical laser beam.
Current Stage of Development:
The ABL program is in the program definition and risk reduction (PDRR) acquisition phase and is scheduled for full operational capability in 2009,
with a total of seven ABLs.
Currently, ABL is scheduled to shoot down a Scud-like ballistic missile over the Pacific Ocean in December 2004. Theoretically, ABL could be put into
emergency use, called Emergency Operational Capability, any time after that.
"The AirBorn Laser
", Airborne Laser.Com, A site sponsored by: Missile Defense Agency, USAF, Boeing Corp.,
Lockheed & Northrop Grumman
ATS Related Threads:
", Posted by:
", Posted by:
"AIAA Review of Aerospace Advances in 2003 - Part I
", Posted by:
ATL - Advanced Tactical Laser:
The development by Boeing's Rocketdyne division of a small chemical laser falls under a program called the Advanced Tactical Laser, (sometimes
incorrectly referred to as the "Airborne Tactical Laser")
The ATL uses a chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) that generates up to 70 kilowatts of power and can melt through steel at 1 mm per second which
means the beam is not practical to cut through armor but could be used on unarmored vehicles, communications antennas, aircraft, low-flying,
terrain-following cruise missiles and of course... ummm... shall we say "softer targets".
The Army, Navy & USMC are all interested in the ATL, as it can be mountable on fixed and rotary-wing aircraft like the MV-22 Osprey and larger helo's
such as Chinooks. The ATL has a range of approximately 15 kilometers and could see deployment as early as FY2005.
"Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL)
", Global Security.Org
MTHEL - Mobile Tactical High Energy Laser:
In April 1996, Israel s Prime Minister, Shimon Peres, met with President Bill Clinton and Secretary of Defense William Perry. As a result of these
meetings, the United States made a commitment to assist Israel in the development of a THEL demonstrator to help Israel defend its northern cities
from the threat posed by Katyusha and other short-range rockets.
One advantage of killing enemy missiles with a laser is the relatively low cost compared to kinetic-energy missiles. The Patriot?s newest missile, the
PAC-3, currently costs $3.8 million a piece. A THEL shot is estimated to cost about $8,000.
The THEL's historic June 6, 2000 Katyusha shootdown at the HELSTF (High Enegy Laser System Test Facility) was completed in just nine months, less
than four years from program start. Testing culminated in a remarkable Surprise Attack test, engaging an operational threat with unknown launch points
and launch time. This test and the subsequent unprecedented 25 shootdowns have been highly praised by defense officials in both countries.
The deuterium fluoride THEL (not a COIL as is frequently mistakenly reported) is currently being used as a test bed for the follow-on program to
develop a mobile variant called MTHEL.
The next step for MTHEL will be a mobile platform-mounted high energy laser weapon designed to meet common U.S. and Israeli operational requirements,
providing an initial operational capability to address U.S. Army transformation objectives and to help with Israeli border security by providing a
defense against short range missiles, rockets and other air defense threats.
Historical Note: The MIRACL
A precursor to the MTHEL and an offshoot of Reagan's "Star Wars" technology is the Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser or MIRACL. It was designed
and built in the late 1980's to demonstrate laser technology that could evolve towards anti-missile weapons.
The MIRACL was a huge ground-based system that required massive jet engine-sized turbines to create enough power to drive the laser light.
In a test conducted at White Sands Missile Range, N.M., the MIRACL was the first laser in the history of military weaponry that struck a satellite in
orbital flight around the earth. The laser was fired at the Air Force MSTI-3 research satellite as it passed over White Sands, two bursts from the
chemical laser struck a sensor array on the MSTI-3 craft. One burst was an initial one second firing to calibrate the laser's location on the
satellite's body. The second beam was a 10 second burst, which triggered the sensors and relayed data back to the ground tracking and monitoring
stations that MIRCL had successfully tracked and hit the target with a potentially destructive force.
"Mobile Tactical High Energy Laser
Northrop-Grumman Press Release
ATS Related Threads:
"United States confirms new laser selection
", Posted by:
"Ground Based Lasers To Protect Airliners
", Posted by:
SBL - Space Based Laser:
Designed to compliment the mission of the Airborne Laser, the Space-Based Laser will provide the first wave of defense against ballistic missiles
launched from anywhere in the world. The program is sponsored by the Ballistic Defense Organization.
Northrop Grumman/TRW leads one of two current SBL concept definition efforts, with Boeing & Lockheed Martin serving as a team members and major
The SBL program is currently focusing mainly on the development and demonstration of components and subsystem technologies which would be required for
a fully operational Space Based Laser system.
DOD estimates that it will cost about $3 billion to develop and deploy the Integrated Flight Experiment vehicle, originally scheduled to have an
experimental version of the laser in orbit by 2012, the Pentagon now believes it could establish some operational capability by 2008 at the earliest
and add further developments later, this according to insiders in the U.S. Air Force.
As of May 17, 2003 the Missile Defense Agency decided to classify information on tests and countermeasures used in the program, those close to the
work are saying significant progress is taking place.
"Pentagon Wants Space-Based Laser Operational by 2008
", Global News Wire,
May 10, 2003
"DoD Ballistic Missile Defense Fact Sheet: Space Based Laser
", Missile Defense Agency,
External Affairs - DoD, Washington DC, January 2002
Laser Weapons / Sub-Category: Solid State Lasers
Solid-state lasers are considered the "Holy Grail" to US military planners due to size reduction possibilities and the ability to run off of a
Humvee's engine or an F-35's lift fan drive-shaft instead of running off of expensive, payload hogging, space consuming chemicals.
The State of Solid State:
Raytheon is making major strides in the development of 2nd gen tactical laser weapons, specifically the goal is for a 100kw solid state version.
A 100kw solid state laser is certainly possible, but the high-brightness diodes used to make weapons grade lasers cost about $100 per watt which
sounds easy enough. However, the hurdle that Raytheon R&D needs to jump is in the cooling of the weapons grade laser diodes.
Current cooling technology can only accomodate 10% efficiency on these diodes which means that instead of $100,000 worth of diodes that are 100%
efficient, it requires $1 million worth of diodes that are 10% efficient - this makes for a prohibitive cost and size per individual unit, especially
since there is only $49 million allocated for the development. It is expected that the Raytheon 100kw laser will be ready for demos as early as
In the process of developing the 100kw laser, 15kw & 25kw solid state lasers have been developed and the 15 kw lasers are already deployed for various
military uses. It is rumored that TRW's 25kw version will be mounted to the X-45 UCAV and used to "disable" cruise missiles and ground targets.
Raytheon's 25kw version, which is reported to have far better beam quality than TRW's, is rumored to be in development in a pod that can be fitted
to fighter/attack aircraft. The beam from both versions can burn a hole through metal from a distance in excess of 3 km.
In a recent demonstration at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a test-fired Raytheon solid state laser emitted 400 pulses of light in two
seconds, drilling a smoldering hole through an inch of steel.
As these solid state laser systems become fully developed, they could strike and destroy a target, then be retargeted instantly, shooting down targets
like mortars and artillery shells, explode ordnance in enemy depots, take out ballistic missiles 500 miles away and defend aircraft from air to air
and ground to air missiles.
F-35 & AC-130 Solid State Laser:
The 100-kilowatt infrared laser, which is being developed for the Lockheed-Martin F35 Joint Strike Fighter by contending companies TRW
(Northrop-Grumman) and Raytheon, is far more powerful than any laser ever used in war.
The solid state laser is designed to attack targets such as incoming air to air and ground to air missiles, other fighter aircraft, ground vehicles
and anti-aircraft batteries.
Lockheed, estimates the laser weapon will be ready to test by around 2008 and could go into service by 2010-2015, (other industry estimates have a
more aggressive timetable).
The Zeus Laser:
Zeus originally started out as a humvee mounted chemical laser very similar to the ATL except that it is ground based and smaller. The Zeus-HLONS has
transitioned to a soild state laser With an effective stand-off range of 300 meters. It's primary function is to take out unexploded ordinance such
as landmines, etc., by painting the ordinance with intensely hot laser light and detonating it in just seconds. This weapon is currently operational
although there has not been much press about it to date but sources say that it was used in the 2003 Iraqi War.
The Joint High-Power Solid-State Laser program:
The Joint High-Power Solid-State Laser program is to demonstrate by the end of 2004, then most likely go into deployment. It is a 25 kw solid state
laser, that can be mounted on ground vehicles as well as aircraft. The Joint High-Power Solid-State Laser could be used to destroy short-range
attacking missiles or blind an enemy?s optical sensors.
"HMMWV Laser Ordinance Neutralization System
", Space & Defense Technical Center, US Army
"JSF (F-35) JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER, USA
", Naval Technology.Com
ATS Related Threads:
"America soon to get jet/humvee mounted lasers?
", Posted by:
Radio Frequency (RF) Weapons:
From the military's perspective, Radio Frequency weapons, have many things going for them: their blast travels at the speed of light, they can be
fired without any visible emanation, and they are mostly unaffected by gravity or atmospheric conditions.
Kirtland Air Force Base, in Albuquerque, N.M., is the epicenter of both the Pentagon & the UK's research on pulsed-power electromagnetic weapons. It
is also worth mentioning that it's at Kirtland AFB that the premier pulsed-power system, "Shiva Star" is housed behind meter-thick walls.
It is known that Air Force spokespersons are instructed to refuse comments on what goes on in the pulsed-power programs at Kirtland, but a fact sheet
on the Web site of Kirtland's Directed Energy Directorate describes the Shiva Star as capable of producing "120 thousand volts and 10 million amps
for down to one millionth of a second to generate a power flow equivalent to a terawatt."
Because of the secrecy surrounding the US military's HPM programs building a list of confirmed programs has been a daunting task.
Industry executives have been a bit more forthcoming with news of these new weapons.
In December 2002, Michael Booen, vice president of Directed Energy Weapons at Raytheon Co., told OpticsReport, a journal aimed at investors, that some
of its high-powered microwave systems were "on the verge of use today" and indicated at that time (2002) that deployment was imminent.
Shiva star was originally a Particle Beam program under Ronald Reagan's "Star Wars" initiative, more about that in the Particle Beam section.
Currently Shiva Star is one of the most powerful EMP devices in the world.
Sinus 6: Shiva Star Junior
The Sinus-6 can fire a several-gigawatt pulsed beam 200 times a second in 10-nanosecond bursts. The pulsed bursts are needed to attain high peak
power, generating a powerful electron beam.
The E-Bomb works by being fired from a long-range 155mm artillery gun, an MLRS rocket launcher, a GPS guided bomb or a cruise missile, reaching it's
target area, then breaking open its outer casing over the target. The munition then unfolds its radio transmitter aerials and the transmitter sends a
high-powered radio pulse of billions of watts that lasts just a few nanoseconds, frying any unshielded electronic device in a large area.
Naval Defense: Project Name Unknown
HPM System for Ship-self-defense and counter in-coming munitions on Naval vessels.
Enemy Air Command & Operations Degradation: Project Name Unknown
HPM Command Control Warfare/Information Warfare (C2W/IW); Destroying an enemies electronic infrastructure.
Aircraft Self Protection (ASP) Project
Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD), counters Surface-to-Air & Air-to-Air Missiles, and other enemy air defense assets.
Jane's Defense Weekly reported in August 2002 that George Muellner, president for the Boeing Phantom Works, admitted that concepts for a DE weapon -
"probably a high-powered microwave" - were being developed for an upgrade to the X-45 unmanned combat air vehicle.
It is very
likely that there are 1st generation versions of this weapon being deployed at this time.
Active Denial Technology: Non Lethal Pain/Discomfort Weapon
Basically, if you could point the output of a microwave oven at an enemy, you could with minimal power make him nauseated and give him severe
headaches, as you turn up the power a little the results change to confussion and a general inability to think logically. As the power continues to be
turned up the enemy will feel hot as the microwaves start affecting the water in the body. Although considered a non-lethal weapon due to it's
ability to inflict pain and disorientation, the final or highest level of this weapon would actually incinerate the enemy. This could be a narrowly
focused beam or it could be a broad beam that could affect a whole group of enemy combatants.
The way it works:
When it penetrates in, it activates the pain sensors, and you feel a lot of pain, Garcia said. But there?s no damage to body tissue in this mode
although admittedly the weapon could be lethal depending on power output, making it nothing shy of 21 century electric napalm.
The program, according to military insiders, could be used for riot control and peacekeeping missions when deadly force is not necessary.
The device works by firing micro-millimeter waves that penetrate just beneath a person?s skin, heating it by a few dozen degrees and causing severe
pain. Describing the panic-causing intensity of the pain inflicted by the high-powered microwaves, an un-named military officer who has experienced
it had this to say: "All the glossy slide presentations cannot prepare you for what to expect when you step in the beam."
This weapon is already operational and in the field.
High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program, (HAARP)
Officially, HAARP is a scientific endeavor aimed at studying the properties and behavior of the ionosphere, with particular emphasis on being able to
understand and use it to enhance communications and surveillance systems for both civilian and defense purposes.
The HAARP program claims to be a world class ionospheric research facility for an Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI), a high power transmitter
facility operating in the HF frequency range. The IRI is used to temporarily excite a limited area of the ionosphere for scientific study.
A widely diverse group of individuals all seem to have problems with the official stated purpose of HAARP, ranging from local residents worried about
their health to activists who charge that the military is planning to use HAARP for a variety of top-secret, sinister purposes.
A few of years ago, anti-HAARP activist Nick Begich, son of a former Alaska congressman, published "Angels Don't Play This HAARP", in which he
argues that the military plans to use HAARP to manipulate weather patterns and jam the thoughts of millions of people worldwide.
Most people in the know on defense oriented research technology such as this snicker openly at such claims, but when the subject of Telsa type
weaponry comes up the same defense knowledgeable become tight lipped, and uncooperative in further discussions.
What is it about HAARP that makes the Russian Duma (senate) sign a petition against the US's HAARP project and send it to Vladimir Putin and the
Secretary general of the UN? The signatures are not those of men and women who are ignorant of defense related issues either, but rather members of
the International Affairs and Defence Committees, members of the Russian Duma who would be knowledgeable of Russia's own Tesla type weapons
Whether something is amiss, innocent or somewhere in between, it certainly bears mentioning here in this thread... Do some research and make up your
LRAD: Sonic Crowd Control
The Long Range Acoustic Device, or LRAD, is a so-called "non-lethal weapon" which measures 33 inches in diameter, can direct a high-pitched,
piercing tone with a tight beam. Neither the LRAD's operators or others in the immediate area are affected. Permanent hearing damage is possible if
someone were exposed to the sound for lengthy periods.
This system is presently deployed to troops dealing with crowd control in Iraq as well as Navy ships in foreign ports not wanting a recurrance of the
US Cole incident.
"HAARP Official HomePage
", University of Alaska
"US HAARP Weapon Development Concerns Russian Duma
", Interfax News Agency, August 10,
2002, Centre for Research on Globalisation
ATS Related Threads:
"HAARP - A structured analysis
", Posted by:
"Troops get high-tech noisemaker
", Posted by:
Particle Beam Weapons:
In 1958, two years before the first scientific laser demonstration in 1960 a project code-named Seesaw was designed to study the possible use of
particle beams for ballistic missile defense.
Particle beams are an outgrowth of conventional atomic accelerator technology. Weapons-class particle beams require millions of volts of electrical
potential, powerful magnetic fields for beam direction, and long accelerating tunnels.
Like lasers, Neutral Particle Beams (NPB) are essentially light-speed weapons. More difficult to control and point than a laser weapon, the NPB is
strictly a line-of-sight device (cannot be redirected).
There is known particle beam research work ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratories, Kirtland AFB & the White Sands
According to Nick Cook Advanced Technologies Editor for Jane's Defense Weekly, in the early 1990s the US Air Force was preparing tests at Kirtland
Air Force Base on a ground-based plasma-weapon capable of firing plasma bullets at incoming ballistic missile warheads. The enabling technology was a
'fast capacitor bank' called Shiva Star that could store 10 million joules of energy and release it instantaneously. Officials anticipated firing
bullets at 3,000km/sec in 1995 and 10,000km/sec - 3% of the speed of light - by the year 2000. The tests absorbed little more than a few million
dollars of annual funding (Jane's Defence Weekly 29 July 1998).
Nick Cook believes that the program's R&D was above-board and openly discussed, but when actual tests were started the results so impressed DoD
officials that Shiva Star was "cancelled" in the public eye but in actuality moved to a deep black classifed plasma weapons project.
Today the original Shiva Star device is used in HPM, EMP testing at the USAF Research Facility at Kirtland AFB... But it is believed that the plasma
weapon Shiva Star started out to be is actually undergoing tests at White Sands, which lends credence to the numerous reports of blue and white
flashes in the skies over White Sands.
The Current State of Particle Beam Technology
The current state of this technology as related to weapons is unknown. Undoubtedly research and testing continues in this field, but it is
impossible to know how far the US is from fielding such a weapon.
George Muellner, vice president of Boeing's Phantom Works acknowledge to Jane's Defense Weekly that his company is actively researching plasma based
DEW's equipping a future breed of hypersonic aircraft platforms, such as those favoured for research and development by the Bush administration.
Muellner said that the use of naturally forming plasmas on a high-Mach aerospace vehicle could, in the long term, be applied "as a huge energy
resource" to a directed-energy weapon for self-defence purposes by "skimming off" some of the plasma that forms naturally around a M8.0 aerospace
Muellner said that there are two possible engineering approaches. One is to divert the plasma into a chamber, excite it, introduce a laser-critical
gas such as argon and direct the resultant energy through high-power optics as a laser beam. The other is to wrap small compact rings or 'toroids'
of plasma energy in intense magnetic fields and fire them from a weapon as 'bullets' at air or ground targets.
Federation of American Scientist - "Neutral Particle Beams"
ATS Related Threads:
", Posted by:
"Laser Hits Orbiting Satellite in Beam Test", SpaceCast News Service, Washington DC -
October 20, 1997, Frank Sietzen
"Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army", Published by Jane's Information Group, David Isby
"The Airborne Laser: FAQ", USAF Airborne Laser System Program Office, Office of Public
Affairs, Kirtland AFB, NM
"The Mobile Tactical High Energy Laser", US Army Space and Missile Defense Command,
"The Boeing Role in Missile Defense: Space Based Laser (SBL)", Boeing News Release,
Boeing Laser & Electro Optical Systems, Canoga Park, CA
"Directed-Energy Weapons Promise ?Low Cost Per Kill?", National Defense
Magazine, September 2001, Author: Sandra I. Erwin
"Laser Weapons In U.S. Sights", CBS News, October 2003
"Fighter plane's laser", New Scientist.Com, July 24, 2002
"Ballistic Missile Defense: Issues and Prospects," Proceedings of a symposium held at the Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard
University, June 30, 1980, Steven E. Miller
"GAO DEFENSE ACQUISITIONS: A Report to Congress on DOD Development of Laser Weapons",
US Government Accounting Office, Washington DC, March 31, 1999
"Raytheon & TRW Win Laser Contracts", Washington Technology News,
Washington DC, December 2002
RF Weapon Sources:
"US DoD push for laser, microwave weapons", Jane's Defense Weekly,
August 9, 2002, By Andrew Koch, JDW Bureau Chief, Washington DC, and Nick Cook, JDW Aerospace Consultant, London
"US Wonder Weapons, The Pentagon's quest for nonlethal arms", U.S. News, July 7, 1997,
"The Dawn of the E-Bomb", High-Power Microwave Sources and
Technologies, "The Spectrum", October 2003
"High Power RF Weapons Technology", National Security Agency,
"Weapons of Total Destruction: HAARP", Viewzone.Com
"Ionosphere Research Lab Sparks Fears in Alaska", Lisa Busch, science writer, Sitka, Alaska
"HAARP: Electromagnetic War On Horizon?",The Coastal Post - May, 1996, Stephen Simac
"Super-secret microwave weapons may be used in Iraq", Seattle
Post-Intelligencer, August 15, 2002
Particle Beam Sources:
"Introducing the Particle Beam", Research paper for
the USAF Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM, Col. Richard M. Roberds (Ret)
"Neutral Particle Beams", Federation of American Scientists
"USAF Directed Energy Technology Plan 1998", USAF Research Laboratory,
"1994 Physic Division Progress Report", Los Alamos National Laboratories, University of California
& US Department of Energy
"Pulsed Power Capabilities: High Energy Density Physics", Plasma Weapons Technology Studies,
Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM
"Boeing considers feasibility of plasma-based weapons", Jane's Defense Weekly, (subscription service) March 28, 2001, Nick Cook, London UK
[Edited on 10-3-2004 by SkepticOverlord]