posted on Jun, 16 2004 @ 05:36 PM
The Roman cross is not fiction or allegory or any other excuse you may have not to beoieve what happened to Jesus. Every single person that hung on a
cross suffered terribly, out of all the people who was killed in this way only one came off that cross with all his bones intact, that was Jesus. It
was the crucifixion procedure for all who were crucified to have their legs broken, but in the OT when God gave the command for the preparing of the
sacrificial lamb He said they could not break any of it's bones. Here is an excerpt from the book 'Resurrection of the Shroud', by Mark
Chapter Two: EXAMINATION OF THE MAN IN THE SHROUD
THE MAN’S WOUNDS
Facial and Head Wounds
The man on the Shroud has a mustache, beard, and hair that falls to his shoulders from a central part. His cheeks appear swollen, and the area below
the right cheek contains a triangular-shaped wound.2 On close examination, his nose, which is bruised and swollen, shows a slight deviation that
indicates the cartilage may be separated from the bone.3 Microscopic study also reveals that scratches and dirt are on the nose.4 The areas above
and below each eye, especially the right eye, look swollen. And the face appears to have been beaten with a hard object (such as a fist or stick)
and/or injured in a fall. The man’s eyes are closed, and small round objects seem to lie on top of them. (Chapters 3, 6, 9 and 10 discuss in greater
detail the three-dimensional studies of the face and eye area; see fig. 6.)
A number of wounds are visible on the top, middle, and sides of the man’s forehead. Altogether, more than a dozen blood flows have been counted
on the front of the head alone (see fig. 7). The blood marks associated with the frontal head wounds seem to run in different directions from their
points of origin, which suggests the head was in different positions as the blood was flowing.
Circling the top and middle of the back of the head is another series of blood marks (see fig. 8). Since these scalp wounds are covered by hair,
the exact number of blood rivulets is difficult to determine, but Dr. Sebastiano Rodante has identified as many as twenty separate blood flows on the
back of the head (see fig. 9), which brings the total number of head wounds to more than thirty.5 Like the frontal image head wounds, the dorsal
blood flows also run in different directions, until they seem to stop along a concave line just below the middle of the head. Above this line, wounds
can be seen in the middle and near the top of the back of the head. When considered with the wounds evident on the top, middle, and sides of the
forehead, the head wounds give the impression that the man was wearing something like a cap made of sharp, pointed objects. Several physicians have
noted that a cap made of thorns would produce head wounds identical to those on the man in the Shroud.6
Hand and Arm Wounds
The man’s left wrist has been wounded or pierced, and blood flows from the wrist area toward the left elbow. Although the right wrist is covered by
the left hand, similar blood flows are also visible extending along the right forearm toward the elbow. As shown in figure 10, both forearm blood
flows run in two nearly parallel streams, with one stream measuring approximately 65 degrees from the horizontal axis of the arm and the other stream
measuring about 55 degrees from the horizontal axis.7 these unusual blood marks flowing from the wrists toward the elbows proved to be an important
piece of evidence, helping physicians determine that the man on the Shroud had been crucified. During crucifixion, a victim’s hands would be higher
than his head. Since the blood flows from the pierced wrists toward the elbows of the man in the Shroud, we know that his arms were elevated, not
hanging at his sides, while his wrists were bleeding.
The two parallel streams running at slightly different angles from the horizontal are also significant. Because of the hanging position, a person
being crucified can exhale only if he pushes himself up with his feet to raise his shoulders and expand the ribcage. This movement alters the
horizontal axis of the arms by approximately 10 degrees (see fig. 11). Pushing upward in this fashion would temporarily lessen some of the constant
pain in the victim’s wrists and arms, but it would increase the pressure and pain in his feet. While this up-and-down motion was arduous, it did allow
a crucifixion victim to breathe and forestall inevitable death—at least until he was too exhausted or in too much pain to push himself up anymore.
Often, the executioners would break the legs of the crucified to stop this movement and hasten death. However, the legs of the man in the Shroud were
The man’s front and back, from shoulders to lower legs, are covered with an estimated one hundred or more scourge marks.8 these dumbbell-shaped
patterns, which are most noticeable on the dorsal image, generally run parallel and diagonal across the body in groups of two or three (see fig.12).
Although all are approximately the same size, these scourge marks vary in intensity from light contusions to deep punctures, and close examination
reveals the presence of blood in many of them.9
Because the scourge marks have two lobes (see fig.13), these wounds must have been inflicted with a bifid instrument. The form and distribution
of these marks led medical examiners of the Shroud to believe they were caused by a whip or cord-like device containing metal or some other sharp
object at the end capable of tearing flesh. In particular, these wounds match, in size and shape, the Roman flagrum (shown in fig. 14).10 The
flagrum, a whip used for flagellation, had pellets of lead (or sometimes bone) at the end of a pair of leather thongs. These unusual marks and their
similarity to the flagrum led medical experts to conclude that the man in the Shroud must have been whipped or scourged.
Since the scourge marks are more visible on the dorsal view, physicians further believe the man was whipped from behind. The central point from
which the blows radiate is a little higher on the victim’s right side than on his left, so two men probably carried out the beating; further, it seems
the ‘scourger’ standing to the right was taller and tended to lash more at the man’s legs in addition to his back. The scourge marks decrease in
number and depth toward the ankle, where some fade into lines visible only under ultraviolet light.11 Since the man’s arms, head, and feet seem to be
the only areas that escaped scourging, we can assume that either his arms were elevated above his body during the scourging, or that his hands were
tied to a post or pillar in front of him while he was whipped from behind. There are so many scourge marks on the back of the man that they are easily
the dominant feature of the dorsal image.
Two broad excoriated areas are present across the victim’s shoulder blades (fig.12). These scrapes are consistent with surface abrasions caused by
contact between skin and a heavy rough object.14 Because some of the scourge marks within this area are slightly different when compared to the
clearly defined marks elsewhere on the body,15 the scourging must have preceded the shoulder abrasions. We know that many crucifixion victims were
forced to carry their own crossbars to the execution site. Carrying such a large chunk of wood could easily have caused some of the man’s shoulder
wounds, especially if he fell under the weight of the beam and was struck by the wood falling on top of him. The Shroud contains evidence consistent
with such a fall or falls. Scratches, lesions, and abrasions on the front of the man’s knees have been revealed by white light photos (see fig. 17)16
and by ultraviolet fluorescent lighting.17 Microscopic examination of the Shroud image also discloses particles of dirt on the front of the knees,
nose, and bottom of the feet.18 Being struck with the crossbeam during a fall may also explain some of the wounds on the back of the man’s head.
Some pathologists have identified another injury on the man thaw may or may not be postmortem. As he appears on the Shroud, the man’s arms have
been forcibly bent so his hands cover his groin. To accomplish this, the shoulder girdle would have had to be broken or dislocated, a practice common
to morticians when positioning a body for burial.19 In this procedure, the muscles between the neck and shoulder are massaged to release rigor mortis
so the arms can be moved. Some medical investigators have noticed that the man’s right shoulder is about 5 degrees lower than the left, a feature most
apparent on the dorsal view.20 Dr. Pierre Barbet believes this indicates a dislocated shoulder, which may have occurred either during hand
positioning at burial, when the victim fell, or when he was raising and lowering himself on the cross.21 If the man’s shoulder had been dislocated
while he was still alive, that injury would have been another source of intense pain.
Leg and Foot Wounds
Detailed study of the lower extremities reveals two large blood marks on the front of the feet, the larger of which has a surrounding border that
fluoresces under ultraviolet light.22
On the dorsal image, two bloodstained imprints of the feet are evident, with the right foot impression being more complete and showing the
outline from heel to toes (fig. 18). Some blood has flowed off the right heel area and onto the cloth. Medical experts agree that this large amount of
blood resulted from a piercing wound to the foot23 and Dr. Robert Bucklin has identified the source of the blood flow: “a square image surrounded by a
pale hole” in the metatarsal zone.24 From this wound, some blood runs vertically toward the toes, but most flows toward the heels and horizontally
onto the cloth.25 this tells us the man was bleeding while in different positions—vertically while on the cross and horizontally when being carried
after he was dead. The blood flow running toward the heels and onto the cloth, deeper in color, has been identified as post mortem.26 The most likely
explanation for this postmortem bloodstain is that most of the blood that accumulated in the front and lower part of the foot while in the vertical
position flowed from the wound after the piercing instrument was removed and the body was laid flat. The Shroud’s medical examiners have concluded
that this piercing instrument must have been the nail or spike typically used for crucifixion. Since this foot wound (shown in fig. 19) is surrounded
by the metatarsal bones, a large nail would provide the support necessary to prop up the victim’s weight.
When viewing the back of the man’s legs and feet, we see that the left foot and leg images are less defined than the right ones. In addition, the
left heel is elevated above the right. These facts indicate that the left knee was flexed to some degree. While this is most apparent on the dorsal
view, the left leg visible on the frontal image also appears slightly raised. In light of these findings, most pathologists contend that the right
foot was placed directly against a flat surface, while the left leg was bent at the knee and the left foot rotated to rest on top of the right foot.
With a body in this position, a single nail driven between the metatarsal bones could affix both feet in a stationary position.