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I will also discuss my own group’s research on the many genetic and biochemical differences between humans and great apes in relation to cell surface sugars called “sialic acids” and their implications for understanding human susceptibility to certain infections, unusual features of the human immune system, the human birth process, and the human brain. I will also discuss our research on surprising findings regarding one sialic acid called “Gc”, which is found in the great apes, but not in humans. This non-human molecule can be incorporated into the human body from dietary sources such as red meat and milk, and is also now contaminating biotherapeutic molecules that are produced using animal-derived materials. Humans, however, have also been found to have antibodies directed against Gc. This could potentially explain certain dietary associations with human disease, as well as negative reactions to some biotherapeutic products.