posted on May, 12 2008 @ 05:46 AM
Probe and drogue
The simpler and cheaper probe-and-drogue system is used by many other military organizations including the US Navy and Marine Corps and many non-US
forces and can be more easily fitted to existing tanker and receiver aircraft than the flying boom system. The lower flow rates
(1,500-2,000lbs/min)available from the lower pressure and limited diameter of the hose used in the probe-and-drogue system result in longer
refueling times compared to the Flying Boom for larger aircraft. Though tankers equipped with multipoint hose-and-drogue refueling can refuel combat
aircraft more effectively than boom equipped aircraft as two aircraft may refuel simultaneously from the same tanker, reducing time spent by as much
as 75% for a four aircraft strike package .
The drogue (or para-drogue), sometimes called a basket, is a fitting resembling a plastic shuttlecock, attached, at its narrow end, with a valve, to a
flexible hose, running from the hose drum unit (HDU) or boom to drogue adapter (BDA). The receiver has a probe, which is a rigid arm placed on the
aircraft's nose or, in some aircraft, to the side of the nose. At the end of the probe is a valve that is closed until it mates with the drogue,
after which it opens and allows fuel to pass from tanker to receiver. The valves in the probe and drogue that are most commonly used are to a NATO
standard and were originally developed by the company Flight Refueling Limited. Drogue-equipped tanker aircraft from many nations can refuel
probe-equipped aircraft from others. The NATO standard probe system incorporates shear rivets that attach the refueling valve to the end of the probe.
This is so that, if a large side-load or up-and-down load develops while in contact with the drogue, the rivets shear and the fuel valve breaks off
rather than the probe itself being structurally damaged. Since the probe has a strong structural attachment to the aircraft fuselage, this also
prevents the possibility of damage to the fuselage of the receiver aircraft itself. A so-called "broken probe" (actually a broken fuel valve, as
described above) may happen if poor flying technique is used by the receiver pilot, or in turbulence. Sometimes the valve is retained in the tanker
drogue and prevents further refueling from that drogue until removed ready for the next sortie.
read this non believers
it has photos to for your assistance