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Voyager 1 has already passed the termination shock, where the million-mile-per-hour solar wind abruptly slows and becomes denser and hotter as it presses against interstellar gas. It was expected the wind beyond the shock would slow to a few hundred thousand miles per hour. But the Voyager scientists were surprised to find that the speed was much less, and at times the wind appeared to be flowing back inward toward the sun.
Perhaps the most puzzling surprise is what Voyager 1 did not find at the shock. It had been predicted that interstellar ions would bounce back and forth across the shock, slowly gaining energy with each bounce to become high speed cosmic rays. Because of this, scientists expected those cosmic ray ions would become most intense at the shock. However, the intensity did not reach a maximum at the shock, but has been steadily increasing as Voyager 1 has been moving farther beyond the shock. This means that the source of those cosmic rays is in a region of the outer solar system yet to be discovered.
* The first light image, of supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, gave astronomers their first glimpse of the compact object at the center of the remnant, probably a neutron star or black hole. (Pavlov, et al, 2000)
* In the Crab Nebula, another supernova remnant, Chandra showed a never-before-seen ring around the central pulsar and jets that had only been partially seen by earlier telescopes. (Weisskopf, et al., 2000)
* The first X-ray emission was seen from the supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*, at the center of the Milky Way. (Baganoff, et al, 2001)
* Chandra found much more cool gas than expected spiralling into the center of the Andromeda Galaxy.
* Pressure fronts were observed in detail for the first time in Abell 2142, where clusters of galaxies are merging.
* The earliest images in X-rays of the shock wave of a supernova were taken of SN 1987A.
* Chandra showed for the first time the shadow of a small galaxy as it is being cannibalized by a larger one, in an image of Perseus A.
* A new type of black hole was discovered in galaxy M82, mid-mass objects purported to be the missing link between stellar-sized black holes
and supermassive black holes. (Griffiths, et al., 2000)
* X-ray emission lines were associated for the first time with a gamma-ray burst, GRB 991216. (Piro, et al., 2000)
* High school students, using Chandra data, discovered a neutron star in supernova remnant IC 443.
* Observations by Chandra and BeppoSAX suggest that gamma-ray bursts occur in star-forming regions.
* Chandra data suggested that RX J1856.5-3754 and 3C58, previously thought to be pulsars, might be even denser objects: quark stars. These results are still debated.
* TWA 5B, a brown dwarf, was seen orbiting a binary system of Sun-like stars.
* Nearly all stars on the main sequence are X-ray emitters. (Schmitt & Liefke, 2004)
* Sound waves from violent activity around a supermassive black hole were observed in the Perseus Cluster.
* The X-ray shadow of Titan was seen when it transitted the Crab Nebula.
* X-ray emissions from materials falling from a protoplanetary disc into a star. (Kastner, et al., 2004)
* Hubble constant measured to be 76.9 km/s/Mpc using Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect.
* 2006 Chandra found strong evidence that dark matter exists by observing supercluster collision
* 2006 X-ray emitting loops, rings and filaments discovered around a supermassive black hole within Messier 87 imply the presence of pressure waves, shock waves and sound waves. The evolution of Messier 87 may have been dramatically affected.
* Observations of the Bullet cluster put limits on the cross-section of the self-interaction of dark matter.
Originally posted by Enrikez
After combing through myself, I'd say that confirmation of a supermassive black hole around Sagittarius A* is the safe bet. Also, Dark Matter is in as well especially considering other recent discoveries. That is unless anyone else can find a link to the past discoveries and anything fantastic ...
Originally posted by Myrdyn
I believe most spiral galaxies have supermassive black holes.