Here is something from Wikipedia. I don't like to use them as a source, but in this case they reference better sources.
I'll try to dig up more information for you.
*edit: Here is a discussion of the differences in Exodus 20 and Deuteronomy 5 and their 'numbering' of the Decalogue:
Roman Catholic and Lutheran Christianity
The Lutheran and Roman Catholic division of the commandments both follow the one established by St. Augustine, following the then current synagogue
scribal division. The first three commandments govern the relationship between God and humans, the fourth through eighth govern public relationships
between people, and the last two govern private thoughts. For additional information on the Catholic understanding of the Ten Commandments, see the
Catechism of the Catholic Church (1994), sections 2052–2557. References to the Catechism are provided below for each commandment as well as the
interpretation used by Lutherans and Catholics. The following text is from Deuteronomy 5:6–5:21 NRSV
1. "I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery; you shall have no other gods before me. You
shall not make for yourself an idol, whether in the form of anything that is in heaven above, or that is on the earth beneath, or that is in the water
under the earth. You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I the LORD your God am a jealous God, punishing children for the iniquity of
parents, to the third and fourth generation of those who reject me, but showing steadfast love to the thousandth generation of those who love me and
keep my commandments."
Catholic teaching distinguishes between dulia—paying honor to God through contemplation of objects such as paintings and statues—and
latria—adoration directed to God alone. (See Catechism 2084–2141.)
2. "You shall not make wrongful use of the name of the LORD your God, for the LORD will not acquit anyone who misuses his name."
This commandment prohibits not just swearing but the misappropriation of religious language in order to commit a crime, participating in
occult practices, and blaspheming against places or people that are holy to God. (See Catechism 2142–2167.)
3. "Observe the sabbath day and keep it holy, as the LORD your God commanded you. Six days you shall labor and do all your work. But the seventh
day is a sabbath to the LORD your God; you shall not do any work—you, or your son or your daughter, or your male or female slave, or your ox or your
donkey, or any of your livestock, or the resident alien in your towns, so that your male and female slave may rest as well as you. Remember that you
were a slave in the land of Egypt, and the LORD your God brought you out from there with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm; therefore the LORD
your God commanded you to keep the sabbath day."
4. "Honor your father and your mother, as the LORD your God commanded you, so that your days may be long and that it may go well with you in the
land that the LORD your God is giving you."
This commandment emphasizes the family as part of God's design, as well as an extended metaphor that God uses for his relationship with his
creation. (See Catechism 2197–2257.)
5. "(Roman Catholic) You shall not kill / (Lutheran) You shall not murder"
The right of states to execute criminals is not absolutely forbidden by this commandment. However, other methods of protecting society
(incarceration, rehabilitation) are increasingly available and more in keeping with other Christian moral teaching. Catholics (along with many
Protestants) also consider abortion sinful and a violation of this commandment. War, if rigorous conditions of moral legitimacy are met (that is, the
"use of arms must not produce evils and disorders graver than the evil to be eliminated"), is not a violation because "governments cannot be denied
the right of lawful self-defense, once all peace efforts have failed." (See Catechism 2258–2330.)
6. "Neither shall you commit adultery."
Adultery is the breaking of the holy bond between husband and wife, and is thus a sacrilege. This commandment includes not just the act of
adultery, but lust as well. (See Catechism 2331–2400.)
7. "Neither shall you steal."
(See Catechism 2401–2463.)
8. "Neither shall you bear false witness against your neighbor."
This commandment forbids misrepresenting the truth in relations with others. This also forbids lying. (See Catechism 2464–2513.)
9. "Neither shall you covet your neighbor's wife."
(See Catechism 2514–2533.)
10. "Neither shall you desire your neighbor's house, or field, or male or female slave, or ox, or donkey, or anything that belongs to your
(See Catechism 2534–2557.)
The Commandments are seen as general "subject headings" for moral theology, in addition to being specific commandments in themselves. Thus, the
commandment to honor father and mother is seen as a heading for a general rule to respect legitimate authority, including the authority of the state.
The commandment not to commit adultery is traditionally taken to be a heading for a general rule to be sexually pure, the specific content of the
purity depending, of course, on whether one is married or not. In this way, the Ten Commandments can be seen as dividing up all of morality.
[edit on 22-4-2008 by EricD]