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When people think of England such terms as 'Great Britain,' 'Queen,' 'Crown,' 'Crown Colonies,' 'London,' 'City of London,' & 'British Empire' come to mind & blend together into an indistinguishable blur. They are generally looked upon as synonymous, as being representative of same basic system.
When we speak of 'City' we are in fact referring to a privately owned Corporation - or Sovereign State - occupying an irregular rectangle of 677 acres & located right in heart of 610 square mile 'Greater London' area. population of 'City' is listed at just over four thousand, whereas population of 'Greater London' (32 boroughs) is approximately seven & a half million.
'Crown' is a committee of twelve to fourteen men who rule independent sovereign state known as London or 'City.' 'City' is not part of England. It is not subject to Sovereign. It is not under rule of British parliament. Like Vatican in Rome, it is a separate, independent state. It is Vatican of commercial world.
City, which is often called "wealthiest square mile on earth," is ruled over by a Lord Mayor.
Britain’s great financial & commercial institutions: Wealthy banks, dominated by privately-owned (Rothschild controlled) Bank of England, Lloyd's of London, London Stock Exchange, & offices of most of leading international trading concerns. [Such as British Invisibles, I kid you not]. Here, also, is located Fleet Street, heart & core of newspaper & publishing worlds.
Lord Mayor, who is elected for a one year stint, is monarch in City. As Aubrey Menen says in "London", Time-Life, 1976, p. 16: "relation of this monarch of City to monarch of realm [Queen] is curious & tells much."
When Queen of England goes to visit City she is met by Lord Mayor at Temple Bar, symbolic gate of City. She bows & asks for permission to enter his private, sovereign State. During such State visits "Lord Mayor in his robes & chain, & his entourage in medieval costume, outshines royal party, which can dress up no further than service uniforms." Lord Mayor leads queen into his city. reason should be clear. Lord Mayor is monarch. Queen is his subject; monarch always leads way. subject always stays a pace or two behind!
small clique who rule City dictate to British Parliament. It tells them what to do, & when. In theory Britian is ruled by a Prime Minister & a Cabinet of close advisers. These 'fronts' go to great lengths to create impression that they are running show but, in reality, they are mere puppets whose strings are pulled by shadowy characters who dominate behind scenes. As former British Prime Minister of England during late 1800s Benjamin D'israeli wrote: "So you see... world is governed by very different personages from what is imagined by those who are not behind scenes" (Coningsby, Century Co., N.Y., 1907, p. 233).
Menen's book: "Prime Minister, a busy politician, is not expected to understand mysteries of high finance, while Chancellor of Exchequer [Budget Director] is only expected to understand them when he introduces budget. Both are advised by permanent officials of Treasury, & these listen to City. If they suspect that some policy of government will [back-fire]... it is no use their calling up British ambassadors to ask if it is so; they can find out more quickly from City. As one ambassador complained to me, diplomats are nowadays no more than office boys, & slow ones at that.
"City will know. They will tell Treasury & Treasury will tell Prime Minister. Woe betide him if he does not listen. most striking instance of this happened in recent history. In 1956 then Prime Minister, Sir Anthony Eden... launched a war to regain Suez Canal. It had scarcely begun when City let it be known that in a few days he would have no more money to fight it; Pound would collapse. He stopped war & was turned out of office by his party "
History clearly reveals that British government is bond slave of "invisible & inaudible" force centered in City. City calls tune. "visible & audible leaders" are mere puppets who dance to that tune on command. They have no power. They have no authority. In spite of all outward show they are mere pawns in game being played by financial elite.
Right Honourable Lord Mayor of London is legal title for Mayor of (and head of) City of London Corporation. Lord Mayor of London is to be distinguished from Mayor of London; former is an officer only of City of London, while Mayor of London is Mayor of Greater London & as such governs a much larger area. In 2006 Corporation of London changed its name to City of London. At same generally used title of Lord Mayor of London became Lord Mayor of City of London partly to avoid confusion w/ Mayor of London. However, legal title remains Lord Mayor of London.*** en.wikipedia.org... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city, usually having sovereignty. Today, Singapore, Monaco & Vatican City are only sovereign states which bear a resemblance to classical definition of a city-state. Several sovereign countries do have self-governing areas delineated around cities, but these are not true city-states because they are not independent of larger state.
Typically a nation will have a federal administration from which capital is granted a separate status. Examples include Washington, D.C. (coterminous w/ District of Columbia) in United States, Brasília (coterminous w/ Brazilian Federal District) in Brazil, Mexico City (being Mexican Federal District) & Canberra (part of Australian Capital Territory). In nations without a federal administrative structure, capital cities sometimes enjoy a greater degree of autonomy, e.g. London.
In Germany, Berlin has been a federal state (Land) of its own since 1990, but, unlike above, remains inside general administration of country. (Note but this has nothing to do w/ its being capital; cities of Hamburg & Bremen have an identical status & look back on a much longer history of political independence.) A similar situation can be found in Austria, where capital Vienna has status of a state within Austrian federation of states. Yet another case is Special Administrative Regions of People's Republic of China; Hong Kong & Macau. Neither capitals nor exclusively cities, their temporary, relative political independence results from agreements between China & colonial powers that formerly controlled them.
HISTORY of 'CITY'
From time of William Conqueror until middle of seventeenth century British Monarchs ruled supreme - their word was law. They truly were Sovereign in every sense of word.
As British strength & influence grew around world toward end of 1600s wealth, strength & influence of elite merchants in City also grew - only at a faster pace. In 1694 privately owned Bank of England (a central bank) was established to finance profligate ways of William III. bank was financed by a group of City merchants who used William Paterson as a 'front.' names of founders have never been made public.
It was at that juncture that Bank of England & City began to dominate & control affairs of Britain. Their influence & wealth grew in leaps & bounds in century that followed. "Illustrated Universal History," 1878, records that "Great Britain emerged from her long contest w/ France w/ increased power & national glory. Her Empire was greatly expanded in all parts of world; her supremacy on sea was undisputed; her wealth & commerce were increased... But w/ all this national prosperity, lower classes of English people were sunk in extreme wretchedness & poverty, having been bled dry during struggle of previous twenty years.
It was at this juncture (1815) that House of Rothschild seized control of British economy, Bank of England & City - and, through their other branches, control of other European nations.
Prior to this period Britain had developed colonies & outposts in far-flung reaches of globe. Having been thrown out of Western Hemisphere, Britain now concentrated on acquiring & developing additional possessions elsewhere.
During its heyday in nineteenth century approximately 90% of all international trade was carried in British ships. Other shippers had to pay Crown royalties or commissions for 'privilege' of doing business on high seas. During these years 'Britannia Ruled Waves' through domination of most modern & powerful navy known up to that time.
On May 1, 1776, Adam Weishaupt, a Jesuit priest, founded "Order of Illuminati" in Bavaria. goal of Illuminati was & still is, World Domination through a consolidation of power into a One-World Government similar to Roman Empire of Dark Ages, or even New Order of Adolf Hitler.
However, Illuminati are not sole group responsible for conspiracy against humanity. name of society has changed, but idea lives on in lodges of Freemasonry throughout world today. Secret societies like Skull & Bones, Bilderbergs, Club of Rome, & others carry out modern agenda, w/ front organizations like Trilateral Commission, Council on Foreign Relations, & Royal Institute for International Affairs. Still more disconnected from government, front organizations like Pro-Zionist British Israel World Federation & American Israeli lobbying group AIPAC.
To avoid misunderstanding, it is important that reader recognize fact that two separate empires were operating under guise of British Empire. One was Crown Empire & other was British Empire.
All colonial possessions that were white were under Sovereign - i.e. under authority of British government. Such nations as Union of South Africa, Australia, New Zealand & Canada were governed under British law. These only represented thirteen percent of people who made up inhabitants of British Empire.
All other parts of British Empire - nations like India, Eqypt, Bermuda, Malta, Cyprus & colonies in Central Africa, Sinapore, Hong Kong & Gilbraltar (those areas inhabited by browns, yellows & blacks) were all Crown Colonies. These were not under British rule. British parliament had no authority over them. They were privately owned & ruled by a private club in London, England known as Crown. Crown's representative in such areas held absolute power of life & death over all people under his juristiction. There were no courts & no method of appeal or retribution against a decision rendered by representatives of Crown. Even a British citizen who committed a crime in a Crown colony was subject to Crown law. He couldn't appeal to British law as it didn't apply.
As Crown owned committee known as British government there was no problem getting British taxpayer to pay for naval & military forces to maintain Crown's supremacy in these areas. Any revolts were met w/ terrible retribution by British navy at no cost to Crown.
City reaped fantastic profits from its operations conducted under protection of British armed forces. This wasn't British commerce & British wealth. international bankers, prosperous merchants & British aristocracy who were part of 'City' machine accumulated vast fortunes which they lavishly squandered in their pursuit of prestige & standing in British Society. Had wealth been spread out among all people in British Isles prosperity would have abounded.
In spite of wealth of world flowing into City majority of British people were barely making ends meet. Many were impoverished to point of despair. elite lived in regal splendor. poor British peasants were never given a chance to get a cut of action.
Simon Haxey in "England's Money Lords Tory M.P.," drew his readers' attention to "total disregard or open contempt displayed by aristocracy" towards British people. He also asked, "What part do colonial people play in battle for democracy when they themselves have no democratic rights & British governing class refuses to grant such rights"
David Lloyd George, a future prime minister, emphasized power of City & its total contempt for "wretches" who were not part of 'club.' In a 1910 speech he stated: "We do most of business of world. We carry more international trade - probably ten times more - than Germany. Germany carries her own trade largely. international trade is ours. Well, we do not do it for nothing. As a matter of fact, our shipping brings us over a hundred millions (pounds) a year, mostly paid by that wretched foreigner. I'm taxing foreigner for all I know... You've heard a good deal of talk here, probably, about exportation of capital abroad. There is no way in which we can make foreigner pay more... We get foreigner in four ways by that. first way we leave to Lord Rothschild..." ("Better Times", published 1910).
About seventy years ago Vincent Cartwright Vickers stated that "...financiers in reality took upon themselves, perhaps not responsibility, but certainly power of controlling markets of world & therefore numerous relationships between one nation & another, involving international friendship & mistrusts... Loans to foreign countries are organized & arranged by City of London w/ no thought whatsoever of nation's welfare but soley in order to increase indebtedness upon which City thrives & grows rich... This national & mainly international dictatorship of money which plays off one country against another & which, through ownership of a large portion of press, converts advertisement of its own private opinion into a semblance of general public opinion, cannot for much longer be permitted to render Democratic Government a mere nickname. Today, we see through a glass darkly; for there is so much which 'it would not be in public interest to divulge'..." (E.C. Knuth, "Empire of 'City'", p. 65).
All of above points were stressed by Roland G. Usher on pages 80, 83 & 84 of "Pan Germanism," written in 1913: "London & Paris bankers [international bankers] control available resources of world at any one moment, & can therefore practically permit or prevent undertaking of any enterprise requiring use of more than a hundred million dollars actual value..."
international bankers "own ... major part of bonded indebtedness of world. Russia, Turkey, Egypt, India, China, Japan, & South America are probably owned, so far as any nation can be owned, in London or Paris. Payment of interest on these vast sums is secured by pledging of public revenues of these countries, and, in case of weaker nations, by actual delivery of perception into hands of agents of English & French bankers. In addition, a very large share, if not major part, of stocks & industrial securities of world are owned by those two nations & policies of many of world's enterprises dictated by their financial heads. world itself, in fact, pays them tribute; it actually rises in morning to earn its living by utilizing their capital, & occupies its days in making them still wealthier."
In 1946 E.C. Knuth wrote: "bulwark of British financial oligarchy lies in its ageless & self-perpetuating nature, its long-range planning & prescience, its facility to outwait & break patience of its opponents. transient & temporal statesmen of Europe & particularly of Britain itself, who have attempted to curb this monstrosity, have all been defeated by their limited tenure of confidence. Obligated to show action & results in a too short span of years, they have been outwitted & outwaited, deluged w/ irritants & difficulties; eventually obliged to temporize & retreat. There are few who have opposed them in Britain & America, without coming to a disgraceful end, but many, who served them well, have also profited well" ("Empire of 'City,'" p. 65). == END of CHAPTER 6 from book "DESCENT into SLAVERY", by Des Griffin
International Financial Services, London, IFSL, private-sector organisation promotes British financial services. formerly known as ‘British Invisibles’ -originated in Committee on Invisible Exports, set up in 1968 by Bank of England.
IFSL has membership from UK's financial & related business services, trade & professional associations, exchanges, Bank of England, City of London Corporation & leading international financial service companies based in London.
IFSL works closely w/ Government departments, including UK Trade & Investment, Department of Trade & Industry, HM Treasury, & Office for National Statistics.
IFSL promotes international activities of UK-based financial institutions, through business events in UK & worldwide. Through its Liberalisation of Trade In Services (LOTIS) Committee, IFSL brings together government & industry to work for removal of barriers to trade in financial services.[/ex
Its chairman, as of August 2005, is Lord Levene of Portsoken —(He spent 20 years in Defence Industry before being asked to take on Permanent Secretary post of Chief of Defence Procurement in Ministry of Defence, a post which he held for 6 years.) Its president is HRH Duke of Kent.—(Prince Edward, Duke of Kent en.wikipedia.org... --(Edward George Nicholas Patrick Paul; born 9 October 1935) is a member of British Royal Family, a grandchild of George V. He has held title of Duke of Kent since 1942.
Duke of Kent carries out royal duties on behalf of his first cousin, Queen Elizabeth II. He is perhaps best known as President of All England Lawn Tennis & Croquet Club, presenting winner of Wimbledon men's tennis tournament w/ winning shield. He also served as United Kingdom's Special Representative for International Trade & Investment, retiring in 2001. He is also President of Scout Association.
Duke of Kent is currently 24th in line of succession to British Throne.)
Invisibles fall into three main categories: services, investment income & transfers. Exported services include such items as financial, professional & legal skills of City, consultancy & other business services, travel & transport, & music, film & television industries. Investment income credits are income earned (as profits, interest & dividends) from ownership of overseas assets by UK companies, government & individuals. Transfer credits include government receipts from EU & private transfers of income, for example savings of UK residents temporarily working overseas & gifts from overseas to UK residents.
Table 2: Invisibles, 1995
in £ billion-----------Credits-----------Debits----------Balance
Services--------------43.4 (31%)------37.6 (28%)--------5.7
Investment income----90.3 (65%)------83.7 (62%)--------6.6
Transfers--------------5.7 (4%)-------13.2 (10%)----- (- 7.5)
Total----------------139.4 (100%)----134.5 (100%)------4.9
Invisible debits are opposite of invisible credits: imports of services, income earned from overseas residents' ownership of UK assets, & transfers from UK to overseas residents, institutions & governments (including contributions to EU).