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Originally posted by Damocles
drink up, yer fine.
In the United States, federal scientists recently began probing another source of drug pollution—large feedlots for livestock. An estimated 40 percent of the antibiotics produced in the United States is fed to livestock as growth enhancers. Geochemist Mike Meyer of the U.S. Geological Survey in Raleigh, N.C., and his colleagues have begun looking for antibiotics in hog-waste lagoons.
Waterways Carry Antibiotic Resistance
By J. Raloff
Wild birds harbor and may transmit drug resistance.
Bacteria that have developed immunity to antibiotic drugs pose a large and growing threat to the success of modern medicine. Three studies now find that U.S. rivers have become a major reservoir of such microbes.
Tainted water probably explains the resistant bacteria in wild Canada geese living year-round in Chicago's suburbs, says Monica L. Tischler of Benedictine University in Lisle, Ill. From goose feces, she isolated 179 types of bacteria, many of which showed strong resistance to streptomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, and penicillin-family drugs. Resistance rates ranged from 2 to 100 percent, depending on the microbe and antibiotic tested.
...And scientists have found lots of them in three Colorado rivers, all of them downstream from sewage treatment plants.
Researchers say the cause is too much estrogen in the water, a natural female hormone that is found in every sewer system. But also, they say, certain chemical compounds in detergents and soaps can mimic estrogen.
Barbara Biggs, of Denver's largest sewage plant, says most of the nation's sewage plants simply can t remove all the estrogen in the water.
Pharmaceuticals in the water are being blamed for severe reproductive problems in many types of fish: The endangered razorback sucker and male fathead minnow have been found with lower sperm counts and damaged sperm; some walleyes and male carp have become what are called feminized fish, producing egg yolk proteins typically made only by females.
Meanwhile, female fish have developed male genital organs. Also, there are skewed sex ratios in some aquatic populations, and sexually abnormal bass that produce cells for both sperm and eggs.
There are problems with other wildlife as well: kidney failure in vultures, impaired reproduction in mussels, inhibited growth in algae.
After just seven weeks, male fathead minnows began producing yolk proteins, their gonads shrank, and their behavior was feminized - they fought less, floating passively. They also stopped reproducing, resulting in "ultimately, a near extinction of this species from the lake," said the scientists.
• Arlington, Texas: 1 (unspecified pharmaceutical)
• Atlanta: 3 (acetaminophen, caffeine and cotinine)
• Cincinnati: 1 (caffeine)
• Columbus, Ohio: 5 (azithromycin, roxithromycin, tylosin, virginiamycin and caffeine)
• Concord, Calif.: 2 (meprobamate and sulfamethoxazole)
• Denver: (unspecified antibiotics)
• Detroit: (unspecified drugs)
• Indianapolis: 1 (caffeine)
• Las Vegas: 3 (carbamazepine, meprobamate and phenytoin)
• Long Beach, Calif.: 2 (meprobamate and phenytoin)
• Los Angeles: 2 (meprobamate and phenytoin)
• Louisville, Ky.: 3 (caffeine, carbamazepine and phenytoin)
• Milwaukee: 1 (cotinine)
• Minneapolis: 1 (caffeine)
• New Orleans: 3 (clofibric acid, estrone and naproxen)
• Northern New Jersey: 7 (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, dehydronifedipine, diphenhydramine and sulfathiazole)
• Philadelphia: 56 (including amoxicillin, azithromycin, carbamazepine, diclofenac, prednisone and tetracycline)
• Portland, Ore.: 4 (acetaminophen, caffeine, ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole)
• Riverside County, Calif.: 2 (meprobamate and phenytoin)
• San Diego: 3 (ibuprofen, meprobamate and phenytoin)
• San Francisco: 1 (estradiol)
• Southern California: 2 (meprobamate and phenytoin)
• Tucson, Ariz.: 3 (carbamazepine, dehydronifedipine and sulfamethoxazole)
• Washington, D.C.: 6 (carbamazepine, caffeine, ibuprofen, monensin, naproxen and sulfamethoxazole)
Originally posted by Johnmike
Still nothing on the concentration. Can't you just get a water quality report? (I got mine a couple weeks ago)
Originally posted by battlestargalactica
reply to post by dk3000
I have not compiled a list from the cities there of all of the drugs and their uses yet because I'm researching effects and toxicity and such, want to try your hand at it? Anyone?
Tap water in 42 states is contaminated with more than 140 unregulated chemicals that lack safety standards, according to the Environmental Working Group's (EWG's) two-and-a-half year investigation of water suppliers' tests of the treated tap water served to communities across the country.
In an analysis of more than 22 million tap water quality tests, most of which were required under the federal Safe Drinking Water Act, EWG found that water suppliers across the U.S. detected 260 contaminants in water served to the public. One hundred forty-one (141) of these detected chemicals — more than half — are unregulated; public health officials have not set safety standards for these chemicals, even though millions drink them every day.
The 141 remaining chemicals without health-based limits contaminate water served to 195,257,000 people in 22,614 communities in 42 states.
The statistics reported here represent an underestimate of the scope of consumers' exposures to unregulated contaminants in the nation's tap water.
• Of the 141 unregulated contaminants utilities detected in water supplies between 1998 and 2003, 52 are linked to cancer, 41 to reproductive toxicity, 36 to developmental toxicity, and 16 to immune system damage, according to chemical listings in seven standard government and industry toxicity references. Despite the potential health risks, any concentration of these chemicals in tap water is legal, no matter how high.
• For 64 of the unregulated contaminants found in tap water, the government has not yet recommended unenforceable, health-based limits in tap water, let alone set an enforceable safety standard. For 46 of these chemicals, no health information whatsoever is available in standard government and academic references.
• Altogether, the unregulated chemicals that pollute public tap water supplies include the gasoline additive MTBE; the rocket fuel component perchlorate; at least 15 chemical by-products of water disinfection; four industrial plasticizers called phthalates linked to birth defects and reproductive toxicity; 78 chemicals used in industrial and consumer products; and 20 chemical pollutants from gasoline, coal, and other fuel combustion.
According to the EPA, the nation's water utilities will need an estimated $53 billion in investments for water treatment over the next 20 years, to meet safety standards for water polluted with the chemicals that EPA has failed to control upstream (EPA 2005e). This investment is not designed to vastly improve tap water quality — it's set to ensure that water suppliers can continue to meet current standards.