Well, I don't know much about that adiabatic rate stuff, but here goes.
1.when air rises, its temperature decreases
2.when air subsides, its temperature increases
3.when the temperature of a parcel of air decreases, its relative humidity increases
4.when the temperature of a parcel of air increases, its relative humidity decreases
5.the normal environmental lapse rate applies to still air
the dry adiabatic lapse rate applies to rising air, when the relative humidity is below 100%
6.the dry adiabatic lapse rate also applies to air that is subsiding. If there is no moisture present, and no evaporation is taking place,
the saturated adiabatic lapse rate applies to rising air, when the relative humidity has reached 100%, and condensation is taking place.
Rising air experiences a drop in temperature, even though no heat is lost to the outside. The drop in temperature is a result of the decrease in
atmospheric pressure at higher altitudes. If the pressure of the surrounding air is reduced, then the rising air parcel will expand. The molecules
of air are doing work as they expand. This will affect the parcel's temperature (which is the average kinetic energy of the molecules in the air
parcel). One of the results of the Laws of Thermodynamics is that there is an inverse relationship between the volume of an air parcel and its
temperature. During either expansion or compression, the total amount of energy in the parcel remains the same (none is added or lost). The energy
can either be used to do the work of expansion, or to maintain the temperature of the parcel, but it can't be used for both. If the total amount of
heat in a parcel of air is held constant (no heat is added or released), then when the parcel expands, its temperature drops. When the parcel is
compressed, its temperature rises. In the atmosphere, if the parcel of air were forced to descend, it would warm up again without taking heat from
the outside. This is called adiabatic heating and cooling, and the term adiabatic implies a change in temperature of the parcel of air without gain
or loss of heat from outside the air parcel. Adiabatic processes are very important in the atmosphere, and adiabatic cooling of rising air is the
dominant cause of cloud formation.
Ok, my brain is cooked now!