reply to post by Balez
I meant this one
and yes, it's a crater, but i may be wrong. Anyway, you started an intriguing thread.
For example, i read that someone is unsatisfied by the quality of Kaguya-Selene
images. Well, this is a screenshot from Kaguya HDTV camera,
basically ten meters resolution.
To claim that these images are low res, means lack of knowledge about Moon imagineering. Kaguya selene is providing the BEST res images provided so
far, if someone claims to have better images, should be so kind to share them HERE, with comparisons and so on. Jaxa is taking the time that it needs
before sharing images: sharing is NOT their priority, hope this is clear, NOW.
Selene (SELenological and ENgineering Explorer)
Lunar orbiter designed to study the origin and evolution of the Moon, SELENE consists of a main satellite and two sub-satellites.
The lunar explorer KAGUYA (SELENE) has been launched by the H-IIA F13 on Sep. 14 from the Tanegashima Space Center
KAGUYA (SELENE): a brief overview
X-ray Spectrometer (XRS)
- X-ray Spectrometer (XRS)
- Multi band Imager(MI)
- Spectral Profiler(SP)
- Terrain Camera(TC)
- Charged Particle Spectrometer (CPS)
- Radio science (RS)
- Four way Doppler measurements by Relay satellite and Main Orbiter transponder (RSAT)
- Differential VLBI Radio Source (VRAD)
- High Definition Television (HDTV)
- Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS)
- Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS)
- Lunar Magnetometer (LMAG)
- Plasma energy Angle and Composition Experiment (PACE)
- Upper-atmosphere and Plasma Imager (UPI)
LISM: Terrain Camera(TC), Multi band Imager(MI), Spectral Profiler(SP)
The XRS will globally determine major elemental composition (Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, etc.) of the lunar crust with high spatial resolution. The XRS
will identify a rock type for each lunar geologic feature and survey its regional variation patterns. Irradiation of solar X-rays excites atoms of the
uppermost surface materials. Those excited atoms then transfer into ground state with emitting X-rays characteristic to each element. X-ray
spectroscopy of sunlit surface thus provides information on elemental composition, along with concurrent monitoring of incident solar x-rays. XRS will
cover approximately 90% of lunar surface except for polar region and map elemental composition with spatial resolution of < 20km.XRF-A (Lunar XRF
Both TC and MI are push-broom type imagers and continuously observe the lunar surface. For stereoscopic observation, TC has two telescopes with
one-dimensional detectors looking at forward and backward directions, respectively. MI has two nadir-looking telescopes with two-dimensional detectors
and bandpass filters to observe in nine different wavelengths.
SP is a spectrometer observing the lunar surface below the spacecraft and separate the light reflected at the surface in 296 wavelengths using two
Terrain Camera (TC)
Multi band Imager (MI)
Spectral Profiler (SP)
Charged Particle Spectrometer (CPS)
LISM will provide first precise topographic, geologic, and mineralogical information of the moon. For example, from LISM data at especially
interesting areas such as crater central peaks, we can understand accurate rock and mineral distribution at those areas. Quality of LISM data is
better than previous lunar exploration satellite data in following points:
- First global topographic data using stereo images.
- Precise geologic unit information in higher spatial resolution of one order of magnitude using both of known and newly acquired color images.
- First direct mineralogical discrimination/identification from continuous reflective spectra.
The ARD will detect alpha rays emitted by Rn and Po on the lunar surface for identification of gas emanation and obtaining information on the crustal
movement during the last - 50 years.
The PS will observe solar and galactic cosmic rays around moon. That is due to protecting human health in the space from radiation particles and to
obtain basic cosmic rays data around moon for forecast of cosmic ray radiations in the space.
The ARD and the PS instruments consist of Si semiconductor detectors with high energy resolution. An incident particle is identified by the method
of delta-E by total-E using the information of energy deposited in multilayer Si detectors respectively. We obtain not only energy information but
also element information for the incident cosmic ray.
Principles of observation
- Neutrons are produced in the lunar subsurface by irradiation of Galactic Cosmic Ray.
- Gamma rays with the energy characteristic to each element on the Moon are produced by interactions of those neutrons with surface elements. Natural
radioisotopes also emit gamma rays.
- Elemental composition is determined by measuring the gamma-ray energies from the lunar orbit.
Will be investigated time variation of the gas emanation with the time scale between one month and one year during the mission period as well as with
the time scale of years through direct comparison with the previous missions using the ARD instrument.
Will be obtained basic cosmic rays data around moon for forecast of cosmic ray radiations in the space by the PS instrument.
Radio science (RS)
Information of the evolution of the Moon will be obtained by measuring the distribution of gravity fields.
It is still under the debate whether the ionosphere exists on the Moon or not because of the shortage of data. The lunar ionosphere will be probed
with RS by measuring the frequency change due to the passage of radio waves in the ionosphere.
VRAD: Differential VLBI observation of radio sources
RS: Observation of the lunar ionosphere
Location of VLBI ground stations
Four way Doppler measurements by Relay satellite and Main Orbiter transponder (RSAT)
Doppler measurements of the lunar far-side have not been done. RSAT overcomes this difficulty by using a relay satellite.
The figure shows the improvement of selenoid height error with RSAT 4way observation.
Improvement of the gravity coefficients in lower degrees with VRAD, and higher
degrees up to 30 degree with RSAT by one order.
High Definition Television (HDTV)
This hardware has a telephoto and a wide-angle HDTV color cameras used three 2.2M-pixel CCDs.
The camera can shoot the earth rise and detailed features of complex crater from slant view, and the image is useful as public information.
Size: 46cm x 42cm x 28cm
Power consumption: 50W
Horizontal angle: 44 degrees (Wide-angle) 15 degrees (Telephoto)
The camera mounted to the moon side of the explorer, and it can shoot the earth rise.
One minute video scene is compressed, stored, and transmitted to the earth through 20 minutes.
[edit on 5/2/2008 by internos]