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9 JUNE 1959
PROJECT HORIZON REPORT
A U. S. ARMY STUDY FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT
OF A LUNAR OUTPOST
CRD/1 (S) Proposal to Establish a Lunar Outpost ( C )
Chief of Ordnance CRD 20 Mar 1959
1. (U) Reference letter to Chief of Ordnance from Chief of Research and Development, subject as above.
2. (C) Subsequent to approval by the Chief of Staff of reference, representatives of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency indicated that supplementary guidance would be required concerning the scope of the preliminary investigation... (snip)
5. Your plan of accomplishment should include full utilisation of the other technical services and combat arms to the extent feasible and necessary. In the accomplishment of this investigation the Chief of Engineers all be responsible for the design, constriction, and maintenance of the base and the Chief Signal Officer will be responsible for communications and other support for which he is peculiarly qualified. Specific emphasis should be given to the Army-wide capability to contribute to this project. The results of this preliminary investigation are requested by 15 May 1959.
6. Reproductions of this letter to the extent you deem essential is **********. All copies will be recorded.
ARTHUR G. TRUDEAU
Lieutenant General, GS
Chief of Research and Development
Requirement for a Lunar Outpost
There is a requirement for a manned military outpost on the moon. The lunar outpost is required to develop and protect potential United States interests on the moon; to develop techniques in moon-based surveillance of the earth and space, in communications relay, and in operations on the surface of the moon; to serve as a base for exploration of the moon, for further exploration into space and for military operations on the moon if required; and to support scientific investigations on the moon.
2. Operational Concept.
Initially the outpost will be of sufficient size and contain sufficient equipment to permit the survival and moderate constructive activity of a minimum number of porsonne1 (about 10 - 20) on a sustained basis. It must be designed for expansion of facilities, resupply, and rotation of personnel to ensure maximum extension of sustained occupancy. It should be designed to be self-sufficient for as long as possible without outside support. In the location and design of the base, consideration will be given to operation of a triangulation station of a moon-to-earth base line space surveillance system, facilitating communications with and observation of the earth, facilitating travel between the moon and the earth, exploration of the moon and further explorations of space, and to the defence of the base against attack if required. The primary objective is to establish the first permanent manned installation on the moon. Incidental to this mission drill be the investigation of the scientific, commercial, and military potential of the moon.
4. Organisational Concept.
The establishment of the outpost should be a special project having authority and priority similar to the Manhattan Project in World War II. Once established, the lunar base will be operated under the control of a unified space command. Space, or certainly that portion of outer space encompassing the earth and the moon, will be considered a military theatre. The control of all United States military forces by unified commands is already established and military operations in space should be no exception. A unified space command should control and utilise, besides the lunar base, operationa1 military satellites and space vehicles, space surveillance systems, and the logistical support thereof. Other space commands might be organised as our operations extended to translunar space.
5. Degree of Urgency.
To be second to the Soviet Union in establishing an outpost on the moon would be disastrous to our nation's prestige and in turn to our democratic philosophy. Although it is contrary to United States policy, the Soviet Union in establishing the first permanent base, may claim the moon or critical areas thereof for its own. Then a subsequent attempt to establish an outpost by the United States might be considered and propagandised as a hostile act.
(S) CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
HORIZON is the project whose objective is the establishment of a lunar outpost by the United States. This study was directed by letter dated 20 March 1959, from the Chief of R&D, Department of the Army, to the Chief of Ordnance. Responsibility for the preparation of the study was subsequently assigned to the Commanding General, Army Ordnance Missile Command. Elements of all Technical Services of the Army participated in...(snip)
1. The Broad Requirement
2. Purpose of the Lunar Outpost
The establishment of a manned US outpost on the moon will:
Demonstrate the United States scientific leadership in outer space
Support scientific explorations and investigations.
Extend and improve space reconnaissance and surveillance capabilities and control of space.
Extend and improve communications and serve as a communications relay station.
Provide a basic and supporting research laboratory for space research and development activity.
Develop a stable, low-gravity outpost for use as a launch site for deep space exploration.
Provide an opportunity for scientific exploration and development of a space mapping and survey system.
Provide an emergency staging area, rescue capability or navigational aid for other space activity.
This build-up program requires 61 SATURN I and 88 SATURN II launchings through November 1966, the average launching rate being 5. 3 per month. During this period some 490,000 pounds of useful cargo will be transported to the moon
During the first operational year of the lunar outpost, December 1966 through 1967, a total of 64 launchings have been scheduled These will result in an additional 266,000 pounds of useful cargo on the moon...
2. Design Criteria
3. Outpost Facilities and Their Installation
Figure I-1 shows the HORIZON outpost as it would appear in late 1965, after about six months of construction effort. The basic building block for the outpost will be cylindrical metal tanks ten feet in diameter and 20 feet in length. (Details of typical tanks are shown in Fig. I-2.) The buried cylindrical tanks at the left-centre of Fig, I-1 constitute the living quarters of the initial construction crew of nine men who will arrive in July 1965, (Details in Fig. I-3.)