Points as to why no man has gone to the Moon and come back alive.
Deadly Radiation At and Past the Van Allen Shields
There is considerable evidence that the Van Allen shields, which start at an altitude of between 250 miles to 750 miles, protect us from deadly solar
and cosmic radiation. (Italics and bold in the below quotes are mine.)
Herbert Friedman, in his book Sun and Earth, describes Van Allen's global survey of cosmic-ray intensity: "The results from Explorer I, launched on
January 31, 1958, were so puzzling that instrument malfunction was suspected. High levels of radiation intensity appeared interspersed with dead gaps
... Explorer III succeeded fully, and most important, it carried a tape recorder. Simulation tests with intense X rays in the laboratory showed that
the dead gaps represented periods when the Geiger counter in space had been choked by radiation of intensities a thousand times greater than the
instrument was designed to detect. As Van Allen's colleague Ernie Ray exclaimed in disbelief: 'All space must be radioactive!'." Herbert Friedman
later explains that "Of all the energy brought to the magnetosphere by the solar wind, only about 0.1 percent manages to cross the magnetic
The April 28, 1997 HST Update: Recommisioning Status Report states that the Van Allen radiation belts, between 200 and 500 miles high, "act as a
thin, protective skin for Earth, trapping charged particles before they bombard our planet and harm us."
The Space Physics Textbook by the Space Physics Group of Oulu lists what high energy particle radiation in the radiation belts does and is:
"-it degrades satellite components, particularly semiconductor and optical devices
-it induces background noise in detectors
-it induces errors in digital circuits
-it induces electrostatic charge-up in insulators
-it is also a threat to the astronauts".
If it is a threat then why were not animal experiments beyond the Van Allen belts done first?
"Today, we have far more knowledge of the space environment: from the turbulent surface of the Sun, with its continuous solar wind and periodic
spewing of clouds of energetic ionized particles, to the protective boundary of the Earth's magnetic field, which provides a partial shield against
deadly solar corpuscular radiation. The Earth's magnetic field is highly reactive to the onslaught of energy and pressure originating from the solar
particles and fields."
"...Besides being a threat to satellite systems, energetic particles present a hazard to astronauts on space missions. On Earth we are protected from
these particles by the atmosphere, which absorbs all but the most energetic cosmic ray particles. During space missions, astronauts performing
extra-vehicular activities are relatively unprotected. The fluxes of energetic particles can increase hundreds of times, following an intense solar
flare or during a large geomagnetic storm, to dangerous levels. Timely warnings are essential to give astronauts sufficient time to return to their
spacecraft prior to the arrival of such energetic particles."
The average orbit altitude of the space shuttle is 185 miles, below where the Van Allen shields begin. How were the Apollo astronauts protected
against these deadly energetic particles and solar flares?
"... the sun ... occasionally ejects high energy particles that can be deadly to electronic components and biological systems..."
"The area between the Sun and the planets has been termed the interplanetary medium. Although sometimes considered a perfect vacuum, this is actually
a turbulent area dominated by the solar wind, which flows at velocities of approximately 250-1000 km/s (about 600,000 to 2,000,000 miles per hour).