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FOIA: A Guide to the Nuclear Arms Control Treaties

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posted on Dec, 7 2007 @ 08:12 PM
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GUIDE_TO_THE_NUCLEAR_ARMS_CON TROL_TREATIES.pdf
A Guide to the Nuclear Arms Control Treaties
The report A Guide to the Nuclear Arms Control Treaties is a very comprehensive report on the treaties beginning at the post World War II days.

Document date: 1999-07-01
Department: Los Alamos National Laboratory
Author: David B. Thomson
Document type: report
pages: 244

 

Archivist's Notes: Good quality document for unlimited public distribution. Contains a biography of the author.
 




posted on Dec, 8 2007 @ 03:23 AM
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this huge document gives an in-depth history of the arms race following world war 2 that led to the creation and use of nuclear weapons (and eventual establishment of the non-proliferation treaties). as a reference book, it is probably the most widely used.

the table of contents for those interested is as follows...

The Nuclear Arms Race .......................................................... 1
The Cold War Begins .............................................................. 2
NATO ...................................................................................... 4
Korea ....................................................................................... 4
The Cold War and Los Alamos ............................................... 5
The Nuclear Weapons Buildup ............................................... 5
Grave Danger, Then a Beginning for Arms Control ............... 6
New Dangers as the Arms Race Continues ............................ 7
Mikhail Gorbachev .................................................................. 8
The Breakup of the Soviet Union ........................................... 9
Further Reductions .................................................................. 10
References and Notes .............................................................. 13
II. Historical Overview of Nuclear Arms Control Negotiations ...... 17
The Baruch Plan ...................................................................... 17
The Eisenhower Years ............................................................. 18
The Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963 ....................... 18
The Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) ........................................ 20
The SALT Treaties .................................................................. 21
The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty .......... 23
The START I Treaty ................................................................ 24
START II and the Cold War Legacy ....................................... 25
The Future of Nuclear Arms Control ...................................... 26
References and Notes .............................................................. 28
III. The Nuclear Test Ban Treaties ................................................ 31
Nuclear Testing ........................................................................ 31
Eisenhower’s Arms Control Proposals ................................... 32
Crisis, Then Agreement ........................................................... 33
The Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963 ..................................... 34
Verification ........................................................................ 34
Ratification and Implementation....................................... 35
The Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) ................................. 38
Verification and Ratification of the TTBT........................ 40
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) Negotiations ......... 41
Summary of the CTBT ............................................................ 43
CTBT Ratification and Issues ................................................. 46
References and Notes .............................................................. 50
IV. The NPT and Nonproliferation ............................................... 79
Negotiation of the Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) ................. 79
Summary Description of the NPT........................................... 82
Entry into Force of the NPT .................................................... 85
Security Assurances ................................................................ 86
Verification .............................................................................. 87
The Creation of the IAEA ....................................................... 87
IAEA Functions ................................................................. 89
IAEA Structure .................................................................. 90
First General Conference of IAEA ................................... 92
IAEA Operations ..................................................................... 92
IAEA Safeguards and NPT Compliance ................................. 93
NPT Review Conferences ....................................................... 96
Indefinite Extension of the NPT ............................................. 97
Nuclear-Free Zones and Other Prohibitions ........................... 98
Treaty of Tlatelolco ........................................................... 98
The Antarctic Treaty .......................................................... 99
The Outer Space Treaty ..................................................... 99
Seabed Arms Control Treaty ............................................. 100
Negotiation of Other Nuclear-Free Zones ........................ 100
Iraq Violates the NPT—the UNSCOM Experience ............... 100
Strengthened Safeguards Systems .......................................... 102
Other Recent Threats to the NPT Regime .............................. 103
South Africa ....................................................................... 103
North Korea ....................................................................... 103
Iran ..................................................................................... 104
Israel .................................................................................. 104
Nuclear Tests by India and Pakistan ....................................... 104
References and Notes .............................................................. 106
V. The INF Treaty ........................................................................ 117
The INF Threat ........................................................................ 117
INF Treaty Negotiations.......................................................... 118
Description of the INF Treaty ................................................. 120
Implementation of the INF Treaty .......................................... 122
Ratification and EIF .......................................................... 122
Establishment of Notification and Inspection Agencies ... 123
Implementation Activities and Inspections ....................... 124
Special Verification Commission (SVC) .......................... 125
Completion of Eliminations under the INF Treaty ........... 127
References and Notes .............................................................. 129
VI. Verification for Nuclear Arms Control ................................... 145
National Technical Means (NTM) .......................................... 145
Reconnaissance Satellites ................................................. 146
Electronic Intelligence ...................................................... 147
Other Sources .................................................................... 147
Data Analysis..................................................................... 148
Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers (NRRCs) ............................. 149
The On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA) ................................. 151
Creation of the OSIA ........................................................ 151
Preparing for Inspections under the INF Treaty ............... 152
Baseline Inspections under the INF Treaty ....................... 153
Continued OSIA Inspections for the INF Treaty .............. 155
Expansion of the OSIA ..................................................... 156
OSIA Inspections under the START I Treaty ................... 157
Verification and Implementation Review ............................... 158
The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) ................... 159
References and Notes .............................................................. 160
VII. The START I Treaty ............................................................... 163
START I Negotiations ............................................................. 163
The Lisbon Protocol ................................................................ 164
Description of the START I Treaty ......................................... 165
START I Ratification and Entry into Force (EIF) .................. 167
United States ..................................................................... 167
Russia ................................................................................ 167
Kazakhstan ........................................................................ 168
Belarus ............................................................................... 168
Ukraine .............................................................................. 168
Entry into Force ................................................................. 169
Implementation of START I .................................................... 170
A. The JCIC and Early START I Implementation Actions 170
B. START I Data Exchanges and On-Site Inspections ..... 171
References and Notes .............................................................. 174
VIII. The START II Treaty ............................................................... 209
START II Negotiations ............................................................ 209
Description of the START II Treaty ........................................ 211
A. START II Warhead and Force Limitations .................. 211
B. START II Elimination, Conversion, and Verification
Procedures .................................................................... 211
START II Ratification Process and Difficulties ..................... 213
United States ..................................................................... 213
Russia ................................................................................ 215
The March 1997 Summit Agreement ...................................... 216
Amendments to START II ....................................................... 217
References and Notes .............................................................. 219



posted on Dec, 8 2007 @ 03:23 AM
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table of contents (continued)

IX. START III Issues and Related Former Soviet Union
Weapons Materials Agreements .............................................. 225
START III ................................................................................ 225
START III/START II Implementation Issues ......................... 226
1. Strategic Force Structure Issues ................................... 227
2. ABM Treaty Issues ....................................................... 230
3. Russian Political and Economic Issues ........................ 233
Nuclear Warhead Verification Issues ...................................... 234
1. Early Deactivation ........................................................ 234
2. Destruction of Strategic Nuclear Warheads (DSNW) ..... 235
3. Prevention of Rapid Buildup of Strategic Warheads
(PRBSW) ...................................................................... 237
4. Strategic Nuclear Warhead Inventories (SNWI) .......... 238
5. Nuclear-Armed SLCMs ............................................... 238
6. Tactical Nuclear Systems ............................................. 239
7. Nuclear Warheads and Verification .............................. 240
The Nunn-Lugar Initiative ...................................................... 241
Agreements on US/Russian Nuclear Weapons Materials ....... 244
MPC&A................................................................................... 244
Agreements on Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) ................. 245
Agreements on Plutonium ....................................................... 246
Plutonium Production Reactor Agreement ....................... 248
Plutonium Management Agreement ................................. 249
Trilateral Agreements with IAEA ..................................... 250
US/Russian Joint Steering Committee on
Plutonium Disposition .................................................. 252
Accelerated Plutonium Disposition .................................. 253
References and Notes .............................................................. 255



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