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Originally posted by internos
Enceladus, you are doing an excellent work here (thank you )
I believe that it would be a great idea to open a thread about these agreements: imho, we would be surprised by many things on this topic.
The XRS will globally determine major elemental composition (Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, etc.) of the lunar crust with high spatial resolution. The XRS will identify a rock type for each lunar geologic feature and survey its regional variation patterns. Irradiation of solar X-rays excites atoms of the uppermost surface materials. Those excited atoms then transfer into ground state with emitting X-rays characteristic to each element. X-ray spectroscopy of sunlit surface thus provides information on elemental composition, along with concurrent monitoring of incident solar x-rays. XRS will cover approximately 90% of lunar surface except for polar region and map elemental composition with spatial resolution of < 20km.XRF-A (Lunar XRF Detector).
LISM will provide first precise topographic, geologic, and mineralogical information of the moon. For example, from LISM data at especially interesting areas such as crater central peaks, we can understand accurate rock and mineral distribution at those areas. Quality of LISM data is better than previous lunar exploration satellite data in following points:
- First global topographic data using stereo images.
- Precise geologic unit information in higher spatial resolution of one order of magnitude using both of known and newly acquired color images.
- First direct mineralogical discrimination/identification from continuous reflective spectra.
The ARD and the PS instruments consist of Si semiconductor detectors with high energy resolution. An incident particle is identified by the method of delta-E by total-E using the information of energy deposited in multilayer Si detectors respectively. We obtain not only energy information but also element information for the incident cosmic ray.
A germanium semiconductor crystal cooled to below -180 degrees centigrade by a Stirling cryocooler is employed as a main detector of GRS. GRS has an excellent energy resolution 20 times superior to those used in past lunar missions. Thus, GRS can discriminate the incident gamma-ray energies with high precision and can determine abundances of more than 10 elements in the lunar surface.
LRS is designed for sounding the surface and subsurface structures of the Moon by using HF radar technique with the frequency of 5 MHz. The low frequency radar method makes it possible to realize the mapping of the subsurface structure within a depth of several km with a range resolution of less than 100 m for a region with a horizontal scale of several tens of km. LRS will contribute to the study of the thermal history of the lunar surface region relating to a time scale of several tens of millions of years.
Magnetic anomalies on the Moon
There are many magnetic anomalies on the Moon where the field intensity is stronger than ordinary regions. We shall perform the high-precision observation to give more detailed map of anomalies in wider regions, enhancing the study of the magnetic anomaly bearing mechanism and of the existence of the ancient lunar magnetic fields.
LMAG and PACE enable us to study on the present and ancient (say, 3-4 billion years ago) environment of magnetic fields and plasma on and around the Moon and also on the evolution of its deep interior.
PACE consists of 4 sensors: ESA (Electron Spectrum Analyzer)-S1, ESA-S2, IMA (Ion Mass Analyzer), and IEA (Ion Energy Analyzer). ESA-S1 and S2 measure the three-dimensional distribution function of low energy electrons below 15 keV, while IMA and IEA measure the three-dimensional distribution function of low energy ions below 28 keV/q.
TEX detects the resonance scattering emissions of oxygen ion and helium ion. The telescope employs a high-efficiency mirror and micro-channel plates with a resistive anode producing 128x128pixel images. The corresponding spatial resolution is 500km.
TVIS is equipped with a fast catadioptric optics and a high-sensitivity CCD to image swift aurora and dark airglow. TVIS has a field-of-view equivalent to the Earth disk seen from the Moon. Spatial resolution is about 30km on the Earth's surface.
Observation wavelengths can be changed by selecting filters.
Initial results on the lunar subsurface structure were obtained using the LRS sounder mode observation data collected on November 20 and 21, 2007. The received radar echo was as expected through computer simulation. The extraction of radar echoes reflected by subsurface structures was demonstrated to be satisfactory.
In addition to the conventional sounding technique that tests echo trace in the plots like Figures 1 and 2, a new method that uses not only the amplitudes of the echoes but also their phases was proved feasible. This method utilizes the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technique with foci of variable depths and ensures robust detection of radar echoes from subsurface structures.
Originally posted by NGC2736
internos, it is not in my power to delete such garbage, and the T&C allows posters to have opinions. But any of us with good sense knows that this is a trash comment.
It would be a shame for you to be driven from the thread by the chattering of those unable to control their juvenile outbursts. Believe me when I say that this poster is nowhere in your league.
That post is a cry for attention by someone that knows no other way.
I urge you not to be hasty.
The Laser Altimeter (LALT) data taken from November 26 (Japan Standard Time, all the following dates and times are JST), 2007, was analyzed.
The LALT is a ranging instrument that emits a laser beam to the lunar surface and measures the distance to it from the main orbiter by the timing delay of the reflected light. The LALT is expected to obtain a global and precise topographic data set of the Moon, including the polar regions with a latitude higher than 75 degrees that have never been explored by previous satellites. This data set, in combination with the high-spatial-resolution stereoscopic observation data to be taken with the Terrain Camera (TC), will compose the first complete, precise, and
high-spatial-resolution topographic map of the Moon.
Among data taken since November 26, 2007, Figure 1 shows the topography of the Mare Orientale deduced from the observation data taken on December 12 and 25, 2007. This demonstrates that the LALT can obtain high-accuracy topographic data.
image shows the cross-section diagram (yellow) of LALT data passing over the Orientale Basin. Values in the diagram show the difference between mean distance from the center of the Moon and the surface topography derived from LALT data.
Cross-section plot shows good correlation with the pocket shape of Orientale Basin.
This figure show the height profiles of Theophilus crater (11.4S / 26.4 E)
observed by LALT sensor taken at January 12 and 26 (Universal Time), 2008. The topographic height of lunar surface was determined by the base sphere with a radius of 1737.4 km from the center of gravity of the Moon.
Theophilus is the most northern part of three craters (Catharina, Cyrillus,
Theophilus) which located in the west side of the Mare Nectaris, and its rim
erode a part of Cyrillus's rim. The diameter of the Theophilus is approximately 100 km, and is known for its grandeur as Copernicus and Tycho. The LALT data clearly shows the quantitative features of the Theophilus as follows; (1) The height of its rim (approximately 2000 m at the north side). (2) The depth of the bottom of crater from the rim (approximately 5000 m). (3) The height of the central peak from the bottom of crater (approximately 2000 m).
The image shows the cross-section diagram (yellow) of the LALT data passing over the Theophilus Crater (one example of several data in previous page). Values in the diagram show the difference between mean distance from the center of the Moon and the surface topography derived from LALT data. The figure is the cross-section plot of the Theophilus Crater, and reveals the following features. (1) The height of its rim (approximately 2000 m at the north side). (2) The depth of the bottom of crater from the rim (approximately 5000 m). (3) The height of the central peak (approximately 2000 m). (4) The gaps of altitudes between northern and southern rims. (5) The flat interior of the crater, and (6) the complex structure of the central peak.