It looks like you're using an Ad Blocker.
Please white-list or disable AboveTopSecret.com in your ad-blocking tool.
Some features of ATS will be disabled while you continue to use an ad-blocker.
The Weather Modification Program exists to issue and monitor cloud seeding and other weather modification activities in Colorado. The program is statutorily authorized in Article 20, sections § 36-20-101 through 127. House Bill 06-1313 expands the Weather Modification Program to provide stategrants to water providers to assist in funding ground-based wintertime operational cloud seeding programs. The bill also changed state authorities to accept contributions from other entities that benefit from cloud seeding. Colorado water users developed many new cloud seeding programs in response to the drought that started in the early 2000s. It is anticipated that interest in funding long-term wintertime cloud seeding programs will continue to grow as competition for water supplies increase.
WESTERN WEATHER CONSULTANTS
APPLICATION FOR A CONTINUOUS WINTER
SEEDING PROJECT FOR THE DENVER
WATER DEPARTMENT PROGRAM
DATES OF PROPOSED PROJECT: 11/1/2007 through 4/15/08 and for the next nine winter seasons
The expected duration of operations is November 1 through – March 31st each year for a continuous program. Adequate safeguards are in place to limit weather modification operations to the realm of natural
variability including but not limited to: severe conditions monitoring, snowpack thresholds, and avalanche danger.
The CWCB coordinates regularly with permitted projects to ensure that operations are being conducted judiciously
to minimize danger to the land, health, safety, people, property and the environment on behalf of the citizens of Colorado.
CLOUD SEEDING IMPACTS?
WATER, SEDIMENT AND TISSUE
•Since the monitored levels are low, usually below the
detection limit in the target watershed, it is unlikely that
continued cloud seeding operations would result in any
significant increase in silver concentrations in the target
• •Silver concentrations were below regulatory standards.
Therefore, continued operations should not result in any
significant chronic effect to sensitive aquatic organisms.
• •There is little to suggest the silver from cloud seeding
gets into the system and bio-accumulates in organisms
the Basin States enlist either the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation)
and/or the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration as the lead federal
agency in the development of a coordinated
national research program, and that
this program should piggy-back research
onto existing and proposed operational
Reclamation's Weather Damage Modification Program;
Much more to read Gov. pdf
Washington, D.C. – The U.S. Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee today approved S. 517, the Weather Modification Research and Technology Transfer Act of 2005 by voice vote. The bill is sponsored by Committee Member Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-Texas)
The Committee also adopted a substitute, also offered by Senator Hutchison, by voice vote. The substitute establishes the short title of the bill as the “Weather Modification Research and Development Policy Authorization Act of 2005” and states that the bill’s purpose is to develop a comprehensive national weather modification research policy.
U.S. Senate Committee
The injection of LC materials into supercooled clouds causes
strong evaporative cooling reaching −90 as shown in
Fukuta (1988) and the subsequent generation of approximately
1013 ice particles per gram of LC materials by homogeneous
nucleation. The number of artificially formed
ice particles keeps approximately constant after the injection
of LC materials during the ascent of an artificially formed
SPECIAL PROTECTION INFORMATION
Respiratory Protection (Specify Type):
Ventilation: Process enclosure, local exhaust, or general dilution ventilation system.
Respirator: High Levels - High efficiency particulate respirator with a full facepiece. Supplied air respirator with a full facepiece,
helmet or hood. Self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. Firefighting- Self contained breathing apparatus with a full
facepiece, operated in pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
Protective Gloves: Are not required but recommended.
Eye Protection: Employee must wear splash-proof or dust-resistant safety goggles to prevent eye contact with this substance.
Clothing: Protective clothing not required. Avoid repeated or prolonged contact with this substance.
Other Protective Equipment: Lab coat and apron
Alfa Aesar has longstanding experience in producing an extensive range of specialized
We have the capability of producing batch sizes up to 200Kg.
Bulk packing sizes are customized to customer’s requirements noting hazard restrictions.
Many silver compounds are photosensitive. All our specialized silver compounds are
silver compounds manufactured
in our Royston, England plant.
packaged in lightproof containers.
• A certificate of analysis is included with each product.
• Each silver product batch has;
1. Full metallic impurities measured by ICP-MS to ppm.
2. The silver content measured.
• A selection of silver compounds can be manufactured to high purity of 99.999%.
• Most other silver products are manufactured to 99.9% purity as standard.
• Cement and coloring agent in the glass industry
• Photographic film industry
• Seed clouds to produce rain
• Antiseptic properties
• Electrode in watch batteries
• Solar energy materials
• Fuel cells
Further details and prices for catalog quantities are available in the Alfa Aesar
The toxic effects of most metals can be traced to their ability to disrupt the function of essential biological molecules, such as proteins, enzymes and DNA. In some cases this involves displacing chemically related metal ions that are required for important biological functions such as cell growth, division and repair.
In humans, accidental or intentional ingestion of large doses of silver nitrate has produced corrosive damage of the gastrointestinal tract, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, shock, convulsions, and death (U.S. EPA, 1985). Respiratory irritation was noted following acute inhalation exposure to silver or silver compounds. Silver nitrate solutions are highly irritating to the skin, mucous membranes, and eyes (Stokinger, 1981).
For example, certain enzymes contain a cysteine amino acid that contains a sulfur atom necessary for its function. Certain toxic metals have a high affinity for sulfur and will bind tightly to the essential cysteine, inhibiting the enzyme from functioning.
One metal may also substitute for another similar metal. For example, the toxic metal, cadmium, can substitute for the essential metal, zinc, in certain proteins that require zinc for their structure or function. This can lead to alterations in that protein that can have toxic consequences. In the same way, lead can substitute for calcium in bone, and in other sites where calcium is required.
Iatrogenic metal toxicity may occur with bismuth, gold, gallium, lithium, and aluminum species...
OPTIMIZING CLOUD SEEDING FOR
WATER AND ENERGY IN CALIFORNIA
Cloud seeding is much less expensive than other water augmentation technologies and has large benefit‐to‐cost ratios. Therefore, seeding is an attractive option to help alleviate water supply problems. Population growth in California will cause water demands to regularly outstrip water supplies in the near future, especially during inevitable droughts.
There is evidence that the current period of atmospheric warming and/or air pollution may be decreasing natural snowfall and, therefore, fresh water supplies. Unless steps are taken, these situations will exacerbate conflicts and instigate litigation over those supplies
With large parts of the American West suffering from severe drought, even as a rising population drains water supplies, many communities have experimented with "cloud seeding," the introduction of artificial nuclei into clouds to spur precipitation. They are not alone. Over the past several decades, more than 40 countries have seeded their clouds. In China, cities bicker over the supposed theft of moisture by upwind neighbors. The king of Thailand owns a proprietary patent on a seeding technique. During the Vietnam War, the United States spent five years and $21.6 million seeding clouds over the Ho Chi Minh Trail in an inconclusive effort to muck up movements of heavy machinery. More recently, municipalities around the United States have used the technique to dissipate fog around airports or to minimize the size of hailstones.
The Modern Rain Dance by the New York Times
Originally posted by Alexander the o.k.
The question is... How?
What controls are in place to ensure that public health is not adversly affected? Are they enforced?
These are questions I'd love to put to the good congressmen.
My guess is, they have no idea.
Legal Remedies for "Cloud-Seeding" Activities: Nuisance or Trespass?
Duke Law Journal, Vol. 1960, No. 2 (Spring, 1960), pp. 305-309
-- is all that silver iodide floating around safe? If you make it rain in Iowa, will you cause a drought in Michigan? -- China is embracing it on a scale that far surpasses anything previously attempted. And not just to put snow on ski slopes. China sees weather modification as a key to solving its environmental issues: Artificial rain can water arid crops, fill depleted reservoirs, and halt desertification. And soon they will try to prove it in a very public way. In an audacious forecast, China is calling for sunny and fair skies at the start of its 2008 Olympic opening ceremonies. Guaranteed.
No. 95: Cloud Seeding
As alarm over global warming spreads, a radical idea is gaining momentum. Forget cuts in greenhouse-gas emissions, some scientists argue. Find a technological fix. Bounce sunlight back into space by pumping reflective nanoparticles into the atmosphere. Launch mirrors into orbit around the earth.
“Mitigation is not happening and is not going to happen,” physicist Lowell Wood declared at the NASA conference. Wood, the star of the gathering, spent four decades at the University of California’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, where he served as one of the Pentagon’s chief weapon designers and threat analysts. (He reportedly enjoys the “Dr. Evil” nickname bestowed by his critics.) The time has come, he said, for “an intelligent elimination of undesired heat from the biosphere by technical ways and means,”
"The law of unintended consequences, often cited but rarely defined, is that actions of people—and especially of government—always have effects that are unanticipated or "unintended." Economists and other social scientists have heeded its power for centuries; for just as long, politicians and popular opinion have largely ignored it.
"In the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, many coastal states enacted laws placing unlimited liability on tanker operators. As a result the Royal Dutch/Shell group, one of the world's biggest oil companies, began hiring independent ships to deliver oil to the United States instead of using its own forty-six-tanker fleet. Oil specialists fretted that other reputable shippers would flee as well, rather than face such unquantifiable risk, leaving the field to fly-by-night tanker operators with leaky ships and iffy insurance. Thus, the probability of spills will increase and the likelihood of collecting damages will decrease as a consequence of the new laws."
Originally posted by stompk
No, because they are in China.
Originally posted by Tranceopticalinclined
I come from a military family, as well spent about 15 yrs from Aberdeen Proving ground ( under a mile ) and witnessed all their wonderious Weapon testing thru sound and touch lol, sometimes everyday they would fire into their balistics pit.