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Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
The lord established a shrine, a holy shrine, whose interior is elaborately constructed. He established a shrine in the sea, a holy shrine, whose interior is elaborately constructed. The shrine, whose interior is a tangled thread, is beyond understanding. The shrine's emplacement is situated by the constellation the Field, the holy upper shrine's emplacement faces towards the Chariot constellation. Its terrifying sea is a rising wave, its splendour is fearsome. The Anuna gods dare not approach it. …… to refresh their hearts, the palace rejoices. The Anuna stand by with prayers and supplications. They set up a great altar for Enki in the E-engura, for the lord ……. The great prince ……. …… the pelican of the sea. (1 line unclear)
ASH.GÁN = ikû
"The Field"; alpha, beta and gamma Pegasi with alpha Andromedae
GIGIR (GISH.GIGIR) = narkabtu
The latter paper by the assyriologist Wayne Horowitz is an important discussion of the topic. The Sumerian literary work Enki and the World Order (288-289) refers to two constellations. These are "The Field" (= the Pegasus-square) and "The Chariot." Cylinder B of Gudea (ix, 15) refers to the chariot of Ningirsu ("The Chariot" constellation mul.giš gigir).
Originally posted by Argos
There is still always the question in this theory though of where the wealthy and powerful Anuna got there knowledge, wealth and power?
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
Enki, the king of the Abzu, rejoicing in great splendour, justly praises himself: "My father, the king of heaven and earth, made me famous in heaven and earth. My elder brother, the king of all the lands, gathered up all the divine powers and placed them in my hand. I brought the arts and crafts from the E-kur, the house of Enlil, to my Abzu in Eridug. I am the good semen, begotten by a wild bull, I am the first born of An. I am a great storm rising over the great earth, I am the great lord of the Land. I am the principal among all rulers, the father of all the foreign lands. I am the big brother of the gods, I bring prosperity to perfection. I am the seal-keeper of heaven and earth. I am the wisdom and understanding of all the foreign lands. With An the king, on An's dais, I oversee justice. With Enlil, looking out over the lands, I decree good destinies. He has placed in my hands the decreeing of fates in the place where the sun rises. I am cherished by Nintur. I am named with a good name by Ninḫursaĝa. I am the leader of the Anuna gods. I was born as the firstborn son of holy An."
Originally posted by Nohup
I suppose the old-fashioned way. Accumulation of capital through hard work, intelligence, organization, and kicking the necessary butt. Then once they had power, and were able to hire scribes to record their greatness, they got even greater in retrospect, to the point of becoming gods. "The older I get, the greater I was."
Originally posted by buddhasystem
It was common to talk about gods almost as humans in Scandinavian sagas. Even with regards to wealth -- Thor (or was it Odin?) drank mostly wine as opposed to beer which was a very common drink; wine cost a fortune in Scandinavia.
Enki's journey to Nibru: c.1.1.4
In the shrine of Nibru, Enki provided a meal for Enlil, his father. He seated An at the head of the table and seated Enlil next to An. He seated Nintur in the place of honour and seated the Anuna gods at the adjacent places (?). All of them were drinking and enjoying beer and liquor. They filled the bronze aga vessels to the brim and started a competition, drinking from the bronze vessels of Uraš. They made the tilimda vessels shine like holy barges. After beer and liquor had been libated and enjoyed, and after …… from the house, Enlil was made happy in Nibru.
Originally posted by Argos
But then the question would still remain where did they learn this knowledge, as there was no where in the world where most of these concepts had even been considered let alone incorporated into any sort of society of the time.
Originally posted by Nohup
I could be wrong, but I think the definition of "god" probably evolved over time, particularly after the Zoroastrians got into attributing human emotions and motivations to large, mythological entities that represented attributes such as "light" and "dark," "good" and "evil," etc.
Most likely, "Gods" were originally just particularly accomplished human beings, who had great power and wealth. Thanks to the scribes they hired, some ended up with supernatural powers in the literature, which would be the equivalent of Bill Gates hiring a team of biographers and making them say he can throw thunderbolts or transform himself into an eagle or something.
The Romans held onto this custom of deifying their emperors and other noteworthy people for quite a while. It's something that still confuses a lot of Christians, who continue to misinterpret exactly what the Romans did when Constantine decided Jesus was a God, or Son of God. Some people just don't get the concept.
Basically, the composition is a Sumerian text preserved on Old Babylonian tablets, and many of its traits take us back to the end of the 3rd Millennium, because not only Enki´s temple in Eridu is in full activity, and let´s not forget that Eridu, or Enki´s city, is a very old settlement, where "kingship descended to Earth from the Heavens", but also shows that trade was becoming intense with the countries of the Persian Gulf, with Ur as the capital and the most important trading centre. Moreover, the region of Martu is shown an ally and not an enemy, as shown in the annals of the Third Dynasty of Ur. Meluhha, a city located at the Indian Peninsula (West coast) is mentioned as well, showing that the strength of Sumer was great and that she had allies in all civilised quarters of the known world. Historically therefore, the composition may have been inscribed at the time of the Third Dynasty of Ur, a time of triumph for ancient Mesopotamia in all levels of human endeavour (refer to Lorsque les dieux faisaient l´homme by Professor Jean Bottéro and Samuel Noah Kramer, 1993, Ed. Gallimard, Paris) .
The Third Dynasty of Ur refers simultaneously to a 21st to 20th century BC
The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL), a project of the University of Oxford, comprises a selection of nearly 400 literary compositions recorded on sources which come from ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) and date to the late third and early second millennia BCE.
Unaccountable knowledge (3):Babylonian astronomy
Babylonian astronomers have long been recognized as preeminent in the ancient world. A few thousand years before Copernicus they realized that the earth and the other planets were spherical and that they revolved around the sun. With this knowledge they could accurately predict eclipses of the sun and moon. Many modern scholars assumed that the Babylonians developed their astronomy themselves, to meet the need for accurate calculations for their complex astrology. Surprisingly, newly translated Babylonian texts indicate that positions and motions of the stars and planets were calculated instead according to complex equations inherited from the Sumerian civilization. The Babylonians seem not to have understood the theoretical basis of these formulas, only how to use them.
The Sumerians had even more exact knowledge of the solar system and its place in the universe than their Babylonian heirs, whom they predate. Their calendar, devised as early as 3000 B.C., is the model for our calendar today, and they evidently understood a number of more arcane astronomical matters.
For example, as the earth spins, it wobbles on its axis; this causes a very gradual change-1 degree every 72 years-affecting which star the north pole points to. The phenomenon is called precession. A Great Year-the time it takes before the north pole points to the same north star again-is 25,920 years, calculated by multiplying the 72 years it takes to move each degree by the 360 degrees in a full circle. The Sumerians understood precession and knew the length of the Great Year-an extraordinary feat, given the lengthy observations involved and the instruments available to them.
The Sumerians were also able to measure the distances between stars very precisely. But how would earthbound, pretechnological people learn to do this, and, even more mysterious, why? Such star maps are clearly a necessity for space travelers, but what use could the Sumerian have made of them?
Photo caption: A star in the southern constellation Hydra and a lion, the zodiacal symbol for the constellation Leo, are represented on this clay tablet from ancient Babylonia. (The Mysteries of the Unexplained, pp.54)
is not a single text in any extant Sumero-Mesopotamian text that says the Sumerians or Mesopotamians knew of more than five planets. There are a number of cuneiform tablets that deal with astronomy, all of which have been compiled and published.
The seal is transliterated (the Sumero-Akkadian signs in English letters) and translated in the principal publication of the Berlin Vorderasiatische Museum’s publication of its seal collection, Vorderasiatische Rollsiegel (“West Asian Cylinder Seals”; 1940) by Mesopotamian scholar Anton Moortgat on page 101. This book is in German, so I offer the German and an English translation:
Line 1 = dub-si-ga “Dubsiga” [a personal name of an apparently powerful person]
Line 2 = ili-il-la-at “Ili-illat” [another personal name, this time of the seal’s owner]
Line 3 = ir3-su “dein Knecht” [German for “your servant”]
So the full (rather boring) inscription of VA243 reads: “Dubsiga, Ili-illat, your/his servant.” Nothing in the inscription suggests anything remotely to do with astronomy or planets.
In those days, in the days when heaven and earth were created; in those nights, in the nights when heaven and earth were created; in those years, in the years when the fates were determined; when the Anuna gods were born
whose shadow covers heaven and earth, a grove of vines extending over the Land, Enki, lord of plenty of the Anuna gods
am cherished by Nintur. I am named with a good name by Ninḫursaĝa. I am the leader of the Anuna gods. I was born as the firstborn son of holy An
The Anuna gods address affectionately the great prince who has travelled in his Land
as the Sumerian word for god or divine being is "dingir". I doubt there is a linguistic connection between the two words.
The Maya civilization is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its spectacular art, monumental architecture, and sophisticated mathematical and astronomical systems. Initially established during the Preclassic period, many of these reached their apogee of development during the Classic period (c. 250 to 900), and continued throughout the Postclassic period until the arrival of the Spanish. At its peak, it was one of the most densely populated and culturally dynamic societies in the world.