I know similar discussions of Black Holes and even White Holes have been brought up here before. I have also played around with the idea on my own
from time to time but I've never come across any theory or research in terms of "White Holes". Until now...
Anyone who has ever pondered about Black Hole Singularities, Wormholes, etc. has most likely thought about what or where they might lead or open up
into. A Black Hole that sucks in Everything with forces that overpower even Light itself would logically seem to have a possible White Hole exploding
out the other end, maybe in some alternate Universe, Dimention, Time or even a far off location within our own universe. Science Fiction or Science
Fact? Well, a little bit of both I guess, for now let's just call it Science Theory!
Universe Born In A Black Hole?
Source: University Of California - Davis
Date: 2003-09-17
The universe may have been created by an explosion within a black hole, according to a new theory by two mathematicians recently published in the
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A.
"It's a mathematically plausible model which refines the standard model of the Big Bang," said Blake Temple, professor of mathematics at UC Davis
and co-author of the paper with Joel Smoller, professor of mathematics at the University of Michigan.
In the standard model of cosmology, the universe burst into existence with the Big Bang about 13 billion years ago. Since then, the universe, which
contains an infinite amount of matter and is infinite in extent, has been expanding in all directions.
In the new model, the Big Bang is an actual explosion within a black hole in an existing space. The shock wave of the explosion is expanding into
an infinite space, leaving behind it a finite amount of matter. The universe is emerging from a white hole. The opposite of a black hole, a
white hole throws matter out instead of sucking it in.
The shockwave and the universe beyond the black hole lies in our future. Eventually, the universe will emerge from the black hole as something like a
supernova, but on an enormously large scale, Temple said.
The equations that describe a black hole were written by Albert Einstein as part of the General Theory of Relativity. Einstein's equations work
equally well if time runs forward or backwards. But explosive shockwaves, which include an increase in entropy, are time-irreversible. The new theory
satisfies Einstein's equations while allowing the universe to expand.
Whether the matter emerging from the white hole came from matter that previously fell into another black hole is an open question, Temple said.
"It is natural to wonder if there is a connection between the mass that disappears into black hole singularities and the mass that emerges from white
hole singularities," Smoller and Temple wrote.
www.sciencedaily.com...
What is a white hole? (Ted Bunn, 1995)
The equations of general relativity have an interesting mathematical property: they are symmetric in time. That means that you can take any solution
to the equations and imagine that time flows backwards rather than forwards, and you'll get another valid solution to the equations. If you apply
this rule to the solution that describes black holes, you get an object known as a white hole. Since a black hole is a region of space from which
nothing can escape, the time-reversed version of a black hole is a region of space into which nothing can fall. In fact, just as a black hole can only
suck things in, a white hole can only spit things out.
White holes are a perfectly valid mathematical solution to the equations of general relativity, but that doesn't mean that they actually exist in
nature. In fact, they almost certainly do not exist, since there's no way to produce one. (Producing a white hole is just as impossible as destroying
a black hole, since the two processes are time-reversals of each other.)
What is a white hole? (Karen Masters, 2002)
The short answer is that a white hole is something which probably cannot exist in the real universe. A white hole will turn up in your mathematics if
you explore the space-time around a black hole without including the star which made the black hole (ie. there is absolutely no matter in the
solution). Once you add any matter to the space-time, the part which included a white hole disappears.
What would a white hole look like if it did exist?
The people/person who came up with the term 'white hole' was actually being quite literal. A white hole is pretty much like an 'anti-black hole'.
A black hole is a place where matter can be lost from the universe. A white hole is a place where (if it could exist with any matter in it - which it
can't) matter would pop out into the universe. This has many similarities to the Big Bang singularity.
Something Interesting to think about
It has been suggested by Stephen Hawking that once quantum effects are accounted for, the distinction between black holes and white holes is not as
clear as it may seem. This is because of Hawking radiation which shows that black holes can lose matter. A black hole in thermal equilibrium with
surrounding radiation might have to be time symmetric in which case it would be the same as a white hole. This idea is controversial, but if true it
would mean that the universe could be both a white hole and a black hole at the same time. Perhaps the truth is even stranger. In other words, who
knows?
Schwarzschild wormhole
The Schwarzschild metric admits negative square root as well as positive square root solutions for the geometry.
The complete Schwarzschild
geometry consists of a black hole, a white hole, and two Universes connected at their horizons by a wormhole.
The negative square root solution inside the horizon represents a white hole.
A white hole is a black hole running backwards in time. Just as black
holes swallow things irretrievably, so also do white holes spit them out. White holes cannot exist, since they violate the second law of
thermodynamics.
General Relativity is time symmetric. It does not know about the second law of thermodynamics, and it does not know about which way cause and effect
go. But we do. The negative square root solution outside the horizon represents another Universe. The wormhole joining the two separate Universes is
known as the Einstein-Rosen bridge
Kruskal-Szekeres spacetime diagram of the wormhole
The Kruskal-Szekeres coordinate system is arranged so that the worldlines of radially infalling (yellow) and outgoing (ochre) light rays lie at 45
degrees.
The white hole is the region at the bottom of the diagram, bounded by the two red antihorizons. The black hole is the region at the top of the
diagram, bounded by the two pink-red horizons. Both white and black holes have singularities at their centres, the cyan lines. The regions at left and
right outside the horizons are the two Universes. The two Universes are joined by a wormhole, the region of spacetime between the white hole and black
hole singularities.
As long as the inhabitants of the two Universes remain outside the horizons, they cannot meet or communicate with each other. However, the inhabitants
can meet after falling into the black hole. Having met, they also soon meet the singularity.
For more information on Black & White Holes, Singularities, Wormholes, etc. Including more Graphical Examples and Theories, check out this link...
casa.colorado.edu...