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A transistor based not on the customary sandwich of semiconductor layers but on a Josephson junction (itself a sandwich consisting of two superconducting layers separated by a thin film of insulating material) architecture, and involving not the gated flow of electrons or holes (the empty spaces left behind by electrons) but the controllable flow of tiny magnetic vortices, has been built and tested by Farshid Raissi, a scientist at the Toosi University of Technology in Tehran.
The vortices, set in motion in the form of solitons (pulses that do not lose energy or their shape as they travel) travel at the speed of light and therefore are much faster than the electrons in ordinary transistors, possibly leading, Raissi argues, to quicker switching speeds (email@example.com).