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Description Of Preferred Embodiments
Figures 1 and 2 show the structure of the ST. The end views shown in these figures are what one would see if one were to bend up the ends of the structure shown in the center drawings. Referring to figure 1, item 1 is one of the two chambers. Item 2 is a channel connecting the two chambers and is responsible for the directional coupling. Item 3 is the mid reversal point where the channel (item 2) is moved form the top of the structure to the bottom. This is shown with the hidden lines (item 2) in figure 2.
There are no dimensions shown in these figures (1 and 2) because they can very widely and the ST will work. As a starting point, the channel (item 2) thickness should be equal to 1/6 of the chamber (Item 1) diameter. This structure will most likely be very long and very thin and will be coiled up to make a compact unit. As can be seen, the structure is the same on either side of the reversal point (item 3). It is simply flipped over at the reversal point. The halves have the same cross section for their entire lengths which makes it easy to fabricate through extrusion. This extrude able material will be referred to as “Directionally Coupled Double Chamber” material or DCDC or DC^2 (pronounced DC squared). Although figures 1 and 2 shows the to halves butted together like this, they could also be connected by Ying out the ends and then connecting the Y’s together. The Ying process will be explained in the “Tips for experimenters” section.
Figure 3 shows the air flow pattern inside the ST structure. The flow consists of 2 helical flow tornadoes. One in each chamber. The air of each tornado is fed into the other to form a loop. This is known as a positive feed back loop.
The flow arrows (Item 3) show the longitudinal component of the helical flow it the upper chamber while item 4 shows the same for the lower chamber. The flow arrows (Item 8) show the rotational component of the helical flow it the upper chamber while item 9 shows the same for the lower chamber. Notice that the helical flows are the same on both sides of the reversal point (item 10). The flow arrows (Item 6), on one side of the reversal point (item 10), shows the air flow through the directionally coupling channel transferring air from the helical flow in the upper chamber to that in the lower chamber. The flow arrows (Item 7), on the other side of the reversal point (item 10), shows the air flow through the directionally coupling channel transferring air from the helical flow in the lower chamber to that in the upper chamber. The flow arrows in sequence from items 3 to 6 to 4 to 7 show the path of the positive feed back air flow loop.
Referring to the illustration on the left of figure 4, the air flow arrow (item 2) is in the same direction as the tangential velocities at the top of the rotational component flow arrows (items 1 and 3) in each chamber. Putting the coupling channel at the top with these air flows as shown here will result in the rotational components forcing air into the channel from one side and sucking it out from the other in the direction of flow arrow Item 2. This one way forced coupling is what is being referred to as directional coupling. The illustration on the right of figure 4 shows another example of directional coupling.
The descriptions in this document deal with two equal size round cross section chambers containing a helical flow tornado in each chamber. This is not the only configuration for an ST. The chambers could be just about any size or shape and still allow for helical flow tornadoes to exist. If a channel connecting these chambers is placed in the right spot then directional coupling will occur. There could be more that just two helical flow tornado containing chambers. As long as the helical air flow in the chambers combined with the air flow through directional couplings between these chambers results in a positive feed back air flow loop, The ST structure in question is covered by this patent.
Referring back figure 3, If the ends of the lower chamber and the ends of the coupling channels are plugged as shown with item 5, The helical flow tornado in the upper chamber will suck in air at the input (item 2) and blow it out the output (item 1). The ST is an air pump utilizing the same natural mechanism behind a real tornado.
The fan works by drawing 27 litres of air per second in through an inlet in the base pillar and forcing it through an outlet in the upper ring. The jet of air travels over the aerofoil shape of the ring, creating local low pressure, thereby pulling air from behind it as it decelerates in a process known as inducement, a property of Bernoulli's principle.
Theory of operation
Figure 7 shows the top view of a real atmospheric tornado. It consists of both an inner (Item 2) and outer (item 3) helical flow tornadoes. The rotational component of these tornadoes is shown by the item 4 arrows. Item 6 arrows shows the radial component of the spiral air flow transferring air form the upper inner tornado to the upper outer tornado. Item 5 arrows shows the radial component of the spiral air flow transferring air form the lower outer tornado to the lower inner tornado. Figure 8. shows the view of a slice of the tornado at the item 1 line in figure 7. Referring to figure 8, Item 2 shows the inner tornado with an upward helical flow and item 3 shows the outer tornado with a downward helical flow. The item 7 arrows shows the mushroom circulating air flow resulting in a positive feed back air flow loop.
It is assumed here that when atmospheric conditions create the mushroom air flow like Item 7 necessary for helical flows with a positive feed back air flow loop, then a tornado, both inner and outer parts, will naturally occur. The reason why a tornado form is not going to be covered here. Because the ST structure also creates the conditions for helical flows with a positive feed back air flow loop (see Description), a tornado will also naturally occur. For an ST the two helical flow tornadoes are side by side each in it own chamber.