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Originally posted by Dragonlike
They made very little advancement on the advances they took from their defeated subjects. In fact, Islam never grew on anything. They stayed at the same level, while other empires grew and advanced.
It's becouse the never affected by the movement of atheism. When the Europeans abandoned their religious addiction, they thrived. Muslims on the other hand remained sticked to their religion.
The good things that the Arabian world did to Europeans was to offer them all the preserved knowledge to Europeans and signs the horns of the enlightment.
Religion always see things from a negative and traditional way of thinking towards anything new.
Originally posted by Souljah
Originally posted by XphilesPhan
Well, apparently you havent been very well educated or you would know tht Isaac Newton did do something "new." Did you not read where I told you he invented calculus? besides earlier works by kepler and gallileo, he proposed the fundamental force in the universe known as gravity!
So mister Newton "invented" calculus all by himself?
Nobody before him tried?
He just started from scratch?
The history of calculus falls into several distinct periods, most notably the Greek, Indian, and European periods.
The Greek period introduced some of the ideas of integral calculus, but does not seem to have developed these ideas in a rigorous or systematic way. Eudoxus (circa 408 BCE - circa 355 BCE) used the method of exhaustion, which prefigures the concept of the limit, to calculate areas and volumes. Archimedes (circa 287 BCE - 212 BCE) developed this idea further, inventing heuristics which resemble integral calculus.
Indian mathematics, largely unknown in the west until the 20th century, produced a number of works with some ideas of calculus. The mathematician-astronomer Aryabhata in 499 CE used a notion of infinitesimals and expressed an astronomical problem in the form of a basic differential equation.
Manjula, in the 10th century, elaborated on this differential equation in a commentary. This equation eventually led Bhaskara in the 12th century to develop a proto-derivative representing infinitesimal change, and describe an early form of "Rolle's theorem".
In the 14th century, Madhava, along with other mathematician-astronomers of the Kerala School, described special cases of Taylor series which are treated in the text Yuktibhasa.
It has been recently conjectured that the discoveries of the Kerala School were transmitted to Europe.
And the fact that you claim Newton "invented" all by himself is also not correct:
History of calculus
In the 15th century, a German cardinal named Nicholas of Cusa argued that rules made for finite quantities lose their validity when applied to infinite ones, thus putting to rest Zeno's paradoxes.
In 17th century Europe, Isaac Barrow, Pierre de Fermat, Blaise Pascal, John Wallis and others discussed the idea of a derivative.
René Descartes introduced the foundation for the methods of analytic geometry in 1637, providing the foundation for calculus later introduced by Isaac Newton AND Gottfried Leibniz, independently of each other.
Historically, there was much debate over whether it was Newton or Leibniz who first "invented" calculus. This argument, the Newton v. Leibniz calculus controversy between the German Leibniz and the English Newton, was at the heart of a rift in the mathematical community of the two countries. Much of the credit for the resolution goes to the Analytical Society.
Yet you know that mister Newston "invented" calculus all by himself - at least you write about him like that, as if so many scientists that worked on that same topic centuries before him, do not mean anything. Like mister Gottfried Leibniz for example - you did not mention his name and he is probably as important when talking about calculus as Newton is.
And what's about that knowledge from Kerala School were transmitted to Europe?
[edit on 24/2/07 by Souljah]
Originally posted by T Trubballshoota
It is a puzzle to me how a faith that follows a child molesting, paedophilic, uneducated, mentally ill nomad could produce some advances in the logical arts and systems.
Originally posted by khunmoon
In the Islamic world they seem applied for pure pleasure of the senses, were as in our rigid belief-system nothing seems to have value unless it can be turned into money.
Originally posted by Nygdan
As far as capitalism itself, in part it really is just an extension of self-interest and individualism, which have existed at all times and in all places, but arent' considered high virtues in the classical islamic world.
Setting the Record Straight: The Miracle of Islamic Science
- What is Taught: The first mention of man in flight was by Roger Bacon, who drew a flying apparatus. Leonardo da Vinci also conceived of airborne transport and drew several prototypes.
What Should be Taught: Ibn Firnas of Islamic Spain invented, constructed and tested a flying machine in the 800's A.D. Roger Bacon learned of flying machines from Arabic references to Ibn Firnas' machine. The latter's invention antedates Bacon by 500 years and Da Vinci by some 700 years.
- What is Taught: Glass mirrors were first produced in 1291 in Venice.
What Should be Taught: Glass mirrors were in use in Islamic Spain as early as the 11th century. The Venetians learned of the art of fine glass production from Syrian artisans during the 9th and 10th centuries.
- What is Taught: Until the 14th century, the only type of clock available was the water clock. In 1335, a large mechanical clock was erected in Milan, Italy. This was possibly the first weight-driven clock.
What Should be Taught: A variety of mechanical clocks were produced by Spanish Muslim engineers, both large and small, and this knowledge was transmitted to Europe through Latin translations of Islamic books on mechanics. These clocks were weight-driven.
- What is Taught: In the 17th century, the pendulum was developed by Galileo during his teenage years. He noticed a chandelier swaying as it was being blown by the wind. As a result, he went home and invented the pendulum.
What Should be Taught: The pendulum was discovered by Ibn Yunus al-Masri during the 10th century, who was the first to study and document its oscillatory motion. Its value for use in clocks was introduced by Muslim physicists during the 15th century.
- What is Taught: Isaac Newton's 17th century study of lenses, light and prisms forms the foundation of the modern science of optics.
What Should be Taught: In the 1lth century al-Haytham determined virtually everything that Newton advanced regarding optics centuries prior and is regarded by numerous authorities as the "founder of optics. " There is little doubt that Newton was influenced by him. Al-Haytham was the most quoted physicist of the Middle Ages. His works were utilized and quoted by a greater number of European scholars during the 16th and 17th centuries than those of Newton and Galileo combined.
- What is Taught: Isaac Newton, during the 17th century, discovered that white light consists of various rays of colored light.
What Should be Taught: This discovery was made in its entirety by al-Haytham (1lth century) and Kamal ad-Din (14th century). Newton did make original discoveries, but this was not one of them.
- What is Taught: The first man to utilize algebraic symbols was the French mathematician, Francois Vieta. In 1591, he wrote an algebra book describing equations with letters such as the now familiar x and y's. Asimov says that this discovery had an impact similar to the progression from Roman numerals to Arabic numbers.
What Should be Taught: Muslim mathematicians, the inventors of algebra, introduced the concept of using letters for unknown variables in equations as early as the 9th century A.D. Through this system, they solved a variety of complex equations, including quadratic and cubic equations. They used symbols to develop and perfect the binomial theorem.
- What is Taught: In 1614, John Napier invented logarithms and logarithmic tables.
What Should be Taught: Muslim mathematicians invented logarithms and produced logarithmic tables several centuries prior. Such tables were common in the Islamic world as early as the 13th century.
- What is Taught: Robert Boyle, in the 17th century, originated the science of chemistry.
What Should be Taught: A variety of Muslim chemists, including ar-Razi, al-Jabr, al-Biruni and al-Kindi, performed scientific experiments in chemistry some 700 years prior to Boyle. Durant writes that the Muslims introduced the experimental method to this science. Humboldt regards the Muslims as the founders of chemistry.
ISLAMIC WORLD AND THE WESTERN RENAISSANCE
- "Westerners - Europeans - have great difficulty in considering the possibility that they are in some way seriously indebted to the Arab [Islamic] world, or that the Arabs [Muslims] were central to the making of medieval Europe" (Maria Menocal, The Arabic Role in Medieval Literary History; 1987; p.xiii). Two notable contemporary exceptions are: Carl Sagan, the Nobel laureate astronomer (Princeton University) and John Esposito, Director, Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding, Georgetown University. Both have candidly talked of West's Judeo-Christian-and-Islamic heritage. Esposito talked of this heritage recently, and added, "Nobody ever told me that," and that he "was always taught the linkages between Judaism and Chistianity..."
- "No historical student of the culture of Western Europe can ever reconstruct for himself the intellectual values of the later Middle Ages unless he possesses a vivid awareness of Islam looming in the background."
Pierce Butler, "Fifteenth Century of Arabic Authors in Latin Translation, in the McDonald Presentation Volume; Freeport, N.Y., 1933; p.63)
- "One of the hallmarks of civilized man is knowledge of the past - [including]the past of others with whom one's own culture has had repeated and fruitful contact; or the past of any group that has contributed to the ascent of man. The Arabs fit profoundly into both of the latter two categories. But in the West the Arabs are not well known. Victims of ignorance as well as misinformation, they and their culture have often been stigmatized from afar"
(John Hayes, The Genius of Arab Civilization: Source of Renaissance; MIT Press, 1983; p. 2)
- "The Arab has left his intellectual impress on Europe, as, before long, Christendom will have to confess; he has indelibly written it on the heavens, as anyone may see who reads the names of the stars on a common celestial globe."
(John W. Draper, History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, Harper & Row; Vol.2, 1876 & 1904; p.42)
Originally posted by grover
They had never lost the works of Plato, Aristotle and the other ancient philosophers; not to mention they had access to the works of the Indian sages who gave us such things as the concept and symbol of zero (without which Newton could not have done his work on calculus) and the numerical system that we use to this day. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 etc. is a hell of a lot easier to use than I, II, III, IV, V etc.
So yes the mathematical ideas had spread to the west from India via Islam and Arab culture and so to Newton.
Originally posted by djohnsto77
From the article:
Joshua Socolar, a Duke university physicist, said it is unclear whether the medieval Islamic artisans fully understood the mathematical properties of the patterns they were making.
"It leads you to wonder whether they kind of got lucky," Socolar said in an interview. "But the fact remains that the patterns are tantalizingly close to having the structure that Penrose discovered in the mid-70s."
I think the far more likely explanation is that these craft tiles are simply the work of brilliant artists, not brilliant mathematicians. While it's true Islamic scholars did continue to build on Greco-Roman, Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics while Europe was in the dark ages, their work remains and I don't think there's anything that indicates that they made any true breakthroughs. Trying to divine that they knew far more about math from patterns of tiles than what's revealed in their writings seems like a pseudoscience to me.
Originally posted by Saf85
Excellent topic, a real eye opener for all t hose who wish to learn, rather than let the ignornace guide them.
Arabs and Islam are responsible for many scientfic breakthroughs, many of which have only been confirmed in recent times, thanks to modern breakthroughs.