since then with the advent of modern technology DNA samples of Olmec skeltons has revealed that none of them had any african dna at all
A further complication in determining ancestry from DNA is that there are usually more differences within population groups (or races) than between groups (or races) at the phenotypic and genotypic levels.
It may be a long time before enough genetic information is available to compare individuals' DNA with DNA from different races and determine which race the individual may have descended from.
Dr. Francis Collins, head of the Human Genome Project, says that there
is no evidence so far that would distinguish DNA from one race as opposed to
DNAPrint.com) can estimate what proportions of all your ancestors, not just your purely male and female lineages, came from each continent. DNAPrint's "autosomal DNA" testing service can tell you how much of your ancestry is from sub-Saharan Africa and how much from Europe, for example. On the other hand, by focusing on just the male and female lines, Kittles' African Ancestry test can give the most detailed results about where these particular ancestors came from within Africa.
Some people continue to believe that pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact may have occurred because such voyages were technically quite possible. After all, the only essential requirements for a successful trans-oceanic trip are a boat that can withstand the open ocean weather for a few months, and means to store or obtain enough food and water to keep the crew alive for that duration. The historical and experimental evidence gathered over the last few decades shows that these requirements could have been met even in remote antiquity, millennia before Columbus's time. This circumstantial evidence includes reliable records of several maritime trips of comparable distance, and modern attempts to retrace possible contact routes with reproductions of ancient boats. While these reports and experiments are only speculative, they do open up the question of such contacts.
Linguistic evidence has demonstrated that Madagascar, for example, was settled by Austronesian peoples from Indonesia. Their navigators were able to cross the Indian Ocean and large sections of the Pacific by the early 1st millennium.
In the 19th century, a Japanese junk lost its mast and rudder in a typhoon on its way to Edo, was carried by sea currents across the Northern Pacific, and reached the coast of Washington State 14 months later. One of the survivors, Otokichi, became a famous interpreter.
In 1982, Brazilian newspapers reported that fragments of amphorae had been recovered by professional treasure hunter and underwater archaeologist Robert Frank Marx, from the bottom of Guanabara Bay, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Elizabeth Lyding Mill of the University of Massachusetts has reportedly identified the finds as being Roman, manufactured at Kouass (Dehar Jedid) in Morocco, and dated them to the 3rd century. A bottom survey by Harold E. Edgerton a pioneer in the field from MIT located what seemed to be remains of two disintegrating ships.
The researchers claim that Abubakari's fleet of pirogues, loaded with men and women, livestock, food and drinking water, departed from what is the coast of present-day Gambia.
They are gathering evidence that in 1312 Abubakari II landed on the coast of Brazil in the place known today as Recife.
seems a bit outdated then
It is hard to explain the Mexican Tobacco Beetle remains in the mummy of Ramses II
Originally posted by Marduk
It is hard to explain the Mexican Tobacco Beetle remains in the mummy of Ramses II
yup extremely hard to explain
especially as there is no such thing as a mexican tobacco beetle
The foliage of garden beans such as snap, kidney, pinto, and lima are preferred, but Mexican bean beetles can also be serious pests of soybeans. The beetles also feed on alfalfa, clover, peanut, okra, eggplant, squash, and various weeds.
Potatoes are the preferred host for the Colorado potato beetle, but it may feed and survive on a number of other plants in the nightshade family: eggplant, tomato, pepper, tobacco, ground cherry, horse-nettle, common nightshade, belladonna, thorn apple, henbane, and its first recorded host plant: buffalo-bur.
True "potato beetles" are members of the beetle genus Leptinotarsa, with 32 species in North America, including Mexico; 12 species in the continental United States, including two species in Florida (Arnett 2000). The most notable is the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), found in Florida and most of the United States, and introduced into Europe and parts of Asia. It is a serious pest of potatoes and other solanaceous plants.
Except that there is. (Lasioderma serricorne ):
hey horrificus, could also be the mexican bean beetle (Deloyala guttata).
The tobacco flea beetle is a brownish-black, hard-shelled beetle about 1/16 inch (1.5 mm) in length. Adult flea beetles chew small round holes into and through the tobacco leaf. They attack the young plants in the seed-beds almost as soon as they come up. After the plants are set in the field they continue feeding and this feeding can weaken the plants or kill the buds. Damage may continue throughout the growing season even on mature leaves. Flea beetles lay their eggs on the soil and the delicate, white larvae feed on the roots of the plant.
The " tobacco flea-beetle " (Epitrix parvula, Fabr.) is a small active beetle, the larvae of which attack the roots, while the adult beetles eat holes in the leaves. The latter is the more serious, as in addition to the actual damage done by the beetle the holes afford entrance to fungus spores,
There are over 350,000 different known beetle species worldwide and new species are being discovered all the time. Beetles make up 40% of all insects and the number of beetle species is more than six times the number of all vertebrate species.
Anobiids are cylindrical pubescent beetles, 1-9 mm in length. The head is usually concealed from above by the hoodlike pronotum. Most anobiids live in dry vegetable materials or bore in wood, while others are fungus feeders. About 1000 species of Anobiidae are known, most of which are found in the tropics. The following are two widespread storage pests belonging to this family.
The Cigarette Beetle: Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius) is a common pest of stored cereals, cocoa beans, tobacco, ground nut, peas, beans, flours and other foodstuffs. Originally from South America, it is now found in most of the warmer parts of the world. This species is notorious for attacking a wide range of intact cereal grains, pulse seeds and food stuffs.
To the amazement of some scientists and the consternation of others, chemical evidence of tobacco has been found in ancient Egyptian mummies, although tobacco was supposed to be unknown in the Old World prior to Columbus. First, fragments of tobacco were found deep in the abdominal cavity of the 3200-year-old mummy of Pharaoh Ramses II while it was being studied in a European museum. Some skeptics immediately concluded that this had to be due to modern contamination in the museum. This American plant could not possibly have been known in Egypt, they insisted. In 1992 physical scientists in Germany used sophisticated laboratory instrumentation to test nine other Egyptian mummies. They found chemical residues of tobacco, coca (another American plant, the source of coc aine), and the Asian native hashish (the source of marijuana) in the hair, soft tissues, skin, and bones of eight of the mummies. These traces included cotinine, a chemical whose presence means that the tobacco had been consumed and metabolized while the deceased person was alive. (The ninth mummy contained coca and hashish residues but not tobacco.) Dates of the corpses according to historical records from Egypt ranged from 1070 BC to AD 395,43 indicating that these drugs were continuously available to some Egyptians for no less than 1,450 years.
Recent discoveries of Roman settlement and various Phoenician, Berber, and Egyptian objects and inscriptions in Tenerife and Lanzarote (Canary Archipelago), proves the existence of regular, although not very active, maritime contacts between Europe/Africa and the Canary islands from V BC to IV AD centuries. These contacts make highly likely the assumption that some accidental/drift voyages across the middle (and the south) Atlantic may have happened during antiquity in the same way as they happened between the XVI and XX centuries.
Presently one hundred ninety-six Mesoamerican artifacts with representations of personages with apparent "Caucasoid" and "Negroid" racial characteristics have been registered. We hope that in the near future the mentioned data will permit more objective and better founded evaluation of their implications in the discussion of the Pre-Columbian Trans-Atlantic contacts.
This distribution could not have been due merely to natural transfer mechanisms, nor can it be explained by early human migrations to the New World via the Bering Strait route. Well over half the plant transfers consisted of flora of American origin that spread to Eurasia or Oceania, some at surprisingly early dates.
The only plausible explanation for these findings is that a considerable number of transoceanic voyages in both directions across both major oceans were completed between the 7th millennium BC and the European age of discovery. Our growing knowledge of early maritime technology and its accomplishments gives us confidence that vessels and nautical skills capable of these long-distance travels were developed by the times indicated. These voyages put a new complexion on the extensive Old World/New World cultural parallels that have long been controversial.
If a date for the parasite in the Americas before European discovery could be proven, he observed, then the only explanation for the parasite in the New World would have to be that it arrived anciently via infected humans who had crossed the ocean—"storm-tossed fishermen," he ventured.
His reasoning sprang from facts about the life cycle of this worm. In one stage it must inhabit warm, moist soil (in a climate no colder than that of North Carolina today). At a later stage, the worms from the soil penetrate a human host's body and settle in the digestive tract. Immigrants who came to the New World in slow stages via Beringia would have arrived hookworm-free because the cold ambient conditions would have killed the parasite in the soil (Soper 1927; Ferreira et al. 1988).
In Peru, balsa rafts were in use along the shore by 2500 BC and ocean-going craft well before the 1st century BC (Norton 1987). Alsar (1973; 1974) demonstrated the feasibility of crossing the Pacific from east to west by sailing a fleet of three Ecuadorean-built rafts with a crew of 12 over 9,200 miles to Australia (the rafts even exchanged crew members at rendezvous points en route). Various forms of such rafts, in addition to large canoes, were used throughout much of Oceania (Clissold 1959). Our present state of knowledge about ancient nautics does not rule out voyages that could account for the early presence of amaranth, maize, the peanut, and other crops, as well as the hookworm, in both Asia and the Americas.
The discovery of coca (Erythroxylon sp.) in Egypt was even more shocking. In western South America its leaves have been chewed for its chemical effect for more than 4,000 years (Plowman 1984; Shady S. 1997), although outside the Andean area where it is grown there is little evidence for consuming it. By what route the plant reached Egypt is unclear. Attempts to explain how its chemical signature came to appear in the Egyptian mummies without involving New World contacts seem outlandish.
About as strange as coca's use in the Near East is the fact that Peruvian mummies dating to before AD 200 have been found to contain both physiologically processed residues of tobacco and coca, as well as hashish (Cannabis sativa). Hashish is an ancient in the Old World (Parsche et al. 1993).
Despite the discomfort caused by having a paradigm upset, we must accept that the evidence is convincing for ingesting tobacco, coca, and hashish, at least in Egypt and in Andean South America by the beginning of the 1st millennium BC. The only explanations for that distribution involve voyages across the ocean.