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I expected you to contemplate on the idea of the deepest chamber to be constructed as a water well, and hoped to get a discussion started on the 150 feet deep position of it, since I do not see that depicted in the Petrie drawing above.
My wrong : www.touregypt.net... , the Subterranean Chamber centre was 1056.0 ± 2 inch below the Pavement. That's 26,82 meter. Which is 88 feet.! Not a 150 feet deep position.
It looks more like 60 meter ( my wrong, in fact 26,82 meter = 88 feet), since we know the height of that pyramid, 240 meter. ( my wrong, in fact 482 feet = 147 meter).
And why the horizontal corridor was hacked out to the left of it for about 100 feet = 30.48 meter length, then ending in a dead end. Were they trying to find a new water artery?
Also I would like to discuss my proposal of ancient Nile river beds much closer to the Giza Plateau, and the much higher ancient seasonal flooding, compared to present times.
Can we find any geological surveys regarding this thesis?
Aerial photography from the region, ground radar photo's, infra red photo's (wet soil gives away former river beds). Clay and sand deposits will indicate former river beds, etc.
I fairly well realize how far fetched inundation of the first layers of a pyramid sounds for the occasional reader.
The encasing marble which covered the outside of the pyramid has eroded or been removed over time. With this casing off, the pyramid lost 33 feet = 10 m (orig.txt 11m) of all of its dimensions. The top platform is 10 m square. The base of the pyramid is 754 feet = 230 m and covers 13 acres. The original entrance to the pyramid was about 15 m higher than the entrance that is used today. Apparently Al Mamum, who opened up the new passage, could not find the original opening. The new passageway leads straight across and joins in with the original passage, the descending passage. The descending passage led only to a subterranean chamber. This descending passage that leads down is set at a 26 degree angle that descends down 345 feet = 105 m into the earth under the pyramid.
EDIT : it is not fully clear to me if the writer meant the length of this passage, or the depth compared to ground level.!
This is very important for my thesis that this subterranean chamber was a water well in the flooding season.
The height of the Giza Plateau is about 60 meter above the present day floodplains level, so a possible depth of 105 meter could clearly indicate a former water well, reaching ancient groundwater levels.
However the best chances are he meant that the passageway was 105 meter long.
The passageway is only 3'6" (1.1m) wide and 3'11" (1.2m) high. The chamber is closed to the public. The chamber itself is a room that measures about 46' x 27'1" x 11'6" (14 x 8.3 x 3.5 m). There is a passage that leads 100 feet (30,48 m) horizontally to the western side. The purpose of the pit is uncertain.
The descending passage beyond where the new entrance meets it, is closed off by a steel door. The ascending passage rises at the same angle as the descending, 26 degrees. The ascending passage leads up into the pyramid. The ascending passage is the same dimensions as the descending, 3'6" (1.1m) wide and 3'11" (1.2m) high. It can be quite a difficult trek for some people. The passage leads on for 129 feet (39m).
Perring sunk his round shaft down in the bottom of the ancient square shaft. This hole in the dimly–lighted chamber, about 30 feet deep (with water in it after heavy rains have rushed down the entrance passage), and with a very irregular and wide opening, makes measurement about here somewhat unpleasant. I avoided filling the shaft with the earth removed from the passage, or with the stones which Perring excavated from it, in case anyone should afterwards wish (p. 61) to excavate farther at the bottom. The southern passage is very rough, apparently merely a first drift–way, only just large enough to work in, intended to be afterwards enlarged, and smoothed; its sides wind 6 or 8 inches in and out.
or 1,321 under pavement ; leaving a ledge about 20 inches wide, a second or deeper part of the shaft goes downwards, the N.E. and N.W. sides being continuous with those of the upper part ; it is, in fact, a smaller shaft descending out of the N. corner of the larger. The sides of the smaller shaft are, N.E. 57? S.E. 53? S.W. 60, N.W. 56. The original depth of the smaller shaft I could not see, it was apparently about 40 inches according to Vyse, when Perring sunk his round shaft down in the bottom of the ancient square shaft. This hole in the dimly–lighted chamber, about 30 feet deep (with water in it after heavy rains have rushed down the entrance passage), and with a very irregular and wide opening, makes measurement about here somewhat unpleasant.
All measures stated in this volume are in Imperial British inches, unless expressed otherwise; and it has not thought necessary to repeat this every time an amount is stated ; so that in all such cases inches must be understood as the medium of description.
... and that the buildings were erected near the edge of the limestone desert, bordering the west side of the Nile valley, about 150 feet above the inundated plain, and about 8 miles from the modern Cairo.
Beginning of Horizontal Passage floor to subt. chamber = –1181 inch = 30 meter level below Pyramid Pavement.
Because its apex is in better condition and it is located on an elevation (of about 10 meters), Khafre's sometimes appears to be the largest of the three great Pyramids of the Giza Plateau. However, originally it was some three meters lower than its neighbouring pyramid belonging to Khafre's father, Khufu.
Of photographs, over five hundred were taken, on 1/4 size dry plates, mainly of architectural points, and to show typical features. Volumes of prints of these may be examined on application to me, and copies can be ordered from a London photographer.
The Osiris Shaft is located under the causeway of Khafre, and it is about 25 feet deep. In ancient times people used the water-filled shaft as a swimming-hole, and even to the present day many people, including archaeologists, have entered the shaft. For centuries, however, the meaning of the Osiris Shaft has escaped even the most learned scholars.
This "water shaft" is already the stuff of legend and Internet rumour. It opens in the causeway linking the Sphinx to the second pyramid, and it descends in several places to a depth of nearly 100 feet below the plateau. 'The shaft received its name from the crystal-clear water that fills its bottom chamber. This unfinished water-filled cavern is entered from a higher chamber that contains niches filled with granite stone coffins. One of the empty niches contains a shaft in its floor that leads to a flooded corridor. Wading into the darkness, one can hear the echoes of ground water dripping from the rock walls.
I decided to investigate this shaft last year. Excavation of the second level revealed six rooms cut into the rock; the rooms contained two granite sarcophagi, pottery, and bones. Analysis of the pottery and bones dated this level to 500 BC.
The last level we excavated was about 25m underground, and it was completely filled with water. We stayed for two months draining the water from the shaft and working inside it, and I felt I might and up blind and deaf from all of the dust, mud, and noise of the water! This was the most difficult excavation I was ever involved with.
After the excavation, I looked down into the water and saw the -remains of four pillars surrounded by a wall. Inside them was part of a large, granite sarcophagus with the lid thrown off. This discovery reflected the words of Herodotus when he said that Cheops was buried inside a granite sarcophagus and there was water near Cheops pyramid. People have always wondered about these words, but no one ever discovered the exact location. Even Herodotus admitted that he never saw the burial with his own eyes, because he would never be able to go down into the shaft. He must have based his writing on the words of guides.
I made my second discovery from this excavation after moving the lid of the sarcophagus. I found inscribed in the ground the hieroglyphic word "pr", meaning "house." It is known that the Giza plateau was called "pr wsir nb rstaw", or "the house of Osiris, Lord of Rastaw." "Rastaw" refers to the underground tunnels, and most likely the name of the plateau reflects the tunnels inside the Osiris Shaft. The final chamber we found was most likely a symbolic tomb for the god Osiris; he was believed to control the underground tunnels and tombs of the kings.
In the Late period, the Egyptians cut a tunnel about 6m long on the west wall of the shaft. We sent a boy through the tunnel, only to find that it is closed of and does not lead to any more chambers. To derive the date of the shaft, a boy was lowered into the water-filler tomb on a rope to collect artifacts. From the objects retrieved, we dated the shaft to the New Kingdom, 1550 BC.
Dr. Zahi Hawass Director of the Giza Pyramids and Saqqara.
it descends in several places to a depth of nearly 100 feet below the plateau. 'The shaft received its name from the crystal-clear water that fills its bottom chamber.
From the boat glide of Mirgissa, representations of workers pouring out water in front of sledges, and the experience transmitted by Chevrier,128 we know that a road surface of mud or lime treated with water would considerably reduce the friction. Chevrier found that six men could easily pull a sledge loaded with a 4.8-ton stone on a horizontal plane covered with watered mud. The relation would thus be one man per ton.
Ramps, levers and see-saws, all used by humans.
My last post in that thread is imop the most viable construction method.
Ramps, levers and see-saws, all used by humans.
On the whole, the rain-fall does not appear to have perceptibly changed during historic times.
The Nile, though so much higher in pre-historic or geologic times, as just mentioned, does not seem to have sunk at all, in Middle or Lower Egypt, in historic times ; though above the cataracts it has fallen some twenty or thirty feet. Below the cataracts, on the contrary, it has actually risen, owing to silting up; for many of the deepest tomb-shafts at Gizeh have now several feet of water in them at high Nile, and can only be entered just before the inundation. Also the thickness of mud over the remains both at Memphis and Karnak shows not only the great amount of deposit, but also how much the river must have risen for it to lay down mud so many feet above the old level of deposit.
The rise due to silting up proceeds, then, much faster than any slight diminution of the river which may take place.
The amount of the sand, then, cannot be affected by any variation in moisture ; and on looking back it seems very doubtful if there has been any change in it.