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Expanding The Genetic Code: The World's First Artificial Organism
From time immemorial, every living thing has shared the same basic set of building blocks - 20 amino acids from which all proteins are made. That is, until now: A group of scientists ...created an organism that can produce a 21st amino acid and incorporate it into proteins completely on its own. The research should help probe some of the central questions of evolutionary theory.
"Why did life settle on 20 amino acids?" asks Ryan Mehl, Ph.D., previously a researcher at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, Calif., and now on the faculty of Franklin & Marshall College in Lancaster, Pa. "Would more amino acids give you a better organism - one that could more effectively adapt if placed under selective pressure?" ...To address this question, Mehl and a team of scientists led by Peter Schultz, Ph.D., professor of chemistry at Scripps, added a pathway to an E. coli bacterium that allows it to make a new amino acid - p-aminophenylalanine (pAF) - from simple carbon sources. Analytical techniques showed that pAF was incorporated into proteins with a fidelity rivaling that of the 20 natural amino acids.
"This allows you to have a totally autonomous organism that you can 'race' in one pot by evolving the new bacterium alongside its ancestors with 20 amino acids," says Christopher Anderson, a researcher at Scripps and another author of the paper. ...By racing the organisms - exposing both to selective pressures at the same time and watching their development - the researchers hope to see if the organism with the expanded genetic code has an evolutionary advantage over natural organisms.
Green Onions Identified as Source of E. Coli Cases
In recent years, the number of outbreaks from contaminated produce has far surpassed those from beef and poultry and has drawn nearly even with those linked to seafood, according to the Center for Science in the Public Interest, a nutrition advocacy group. While there are more food-borne outbreaks related to seafood, far more people get sick from produce outbreaks, the group found.
Originally posted by T_Jesus
LastOutfiniteVoiceEternal, I don't believe the poster was looking for a philosophical answer.
Originally posted by LastOutfiniteVoiceEternal
"In any process, the total energy of the universe remains constant." source - wikipedia
The Omni-verse (universe) is Outfinite and Eternal, the creation and destruction of energy is possible because all is accepted, it is simply a matter of choice; choose the reality and the reality Is. Thus, "in any process...", is really now claiming, "in every process". So we can conclude that the creation and destruction of energy is of those any processes Being stated. Creating and destroying energy are processes, not just empty words and ideas.
Originally posted by T_Jesus
From what I've been taught by professors in chemistry and materials...glass is an extremely vicious liquid. This can be seen on old churches - windows kind of look melted, almost.