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Glass- a solid or liquid?

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posted on Dec, 19 2006 @ 05:50 PM
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From the point of view of dynamics and mechanics (i.e. things moving) there are two principal categories: solids and fluids (which are liquids & gases).

In this, glass is definitely a solid.

In a fluid, the stress is proportional to the rate of strain, and fluids cannot support a shear stress in equilibrium.

Glass, as you are presently looking through to read these words, can.

Mechanically, cooled glass is hence a solid.

It is not a crystal, it is amorphous.




posted on Dec, 19 2006 @ 06:50 PM
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PapaHomer - More on artifical organisms.

In 2003, scientists at California's Scripps Institute created an artificial e. coli organism, recognized as the world's first artificial organism - which involved creating a never-before-seen artificial amino acid.

Perhaps coincidentally, new e. coli strains now appear with regularity, and have 'learned' to infect plants: "In recent years, the number of outbreaks from contaminated produce has far surpassed those from beef and poultry and has drawn nearly even with those linked to seafood..."



Expanding The Genetic Code: The World's First Artificial Organism

From time immemorial, every living thing has shared the same basic set of building blocks - 20 amino acids from which all proteins are made. That is, until now: A group of scientists ...created an organism that can produce a 21st amino acid and incorporate it into proteins completely on its own. The research should help probe some of the central questions of evolutionary theory.

"Why did life settle on 20 amino acids?" asks Ryan Mehl, Ph.D., previously a researcher at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, Calif., and now on the faculty of Franklin & Marshall College in Lancaster, Pa. "Would more amino acids give you a better organism - one that could more effectively adapt if placed under selective pressure?" ...To address this question, Mehl and a team of scientists led by Peter Schultz, Ph.D., professor of chemistry at Scripps, added a pathway to an E. coli bacterium that allows it to make a new amino acid - p-aminophenylalanine (pAF) - from simple carbon sources. Analytical techniques showed that pAF was incorporated into proteins with a fidelity rivaling that of the 20 natural amino acids.

"This allows you to have a totally autonomous organism that you can 'race' in one pot by evolving the new bacterium alongside its ancestors with 20 amino acids," says Christopher Anderson, a researcher at Scripps and another author of the paper. ...By racing the organisms - exposing both to selective pressures at the same time and watching their development - the researchers hope to see if the organism with the expanded genetic code has an evolutionary advantage over natural organisms.

***

Green Onions Identified as Source of E. Coli Cases

In recent years, the number of outbreaks from contaminated produce has far surpassed those from beef and poultry and has drawn nearly even with those linked to seafood, according to the Center for Science in the Public Interest, a nutrition advocacy group. While there are more food-borne outbreaks related to seafood, far more people get sick from produce outbreaks, the group found.




posted on Dec, 19 2006 @ 06:54 PM
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well the test would be simple, put a piece of material on a pane of glass if the material goes through the glass without shattering it its a liquid if it breaks before the object goes through then its a solid.

Have to be done with extreme patience in mind. LOL hope you have a dozen decades to spend or longer.



posted on Dec, 19 2006 @ 11:06 PM
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Originally posted by T_Jesus
LastOutfiniteVoiceEternal, I don't believe the poster was looking for a philosophical answer.


Very well. We are entitled to Our beliefs.

It is the imagination and philosophy that paves the way to the reality of Existence. In actuality there is Not a thing of this Existence that is Not dealing in the realms of philosophy, it is only when the consciousness is divided that We find ourselves separating the two in a demonstration of what could be refered to as primitive science and even as a primitive means of thinking Our way... or Not thinking Our way into a faulty societal structure that is lacking ethics and moral just.

Again, as for liquids and solids; Everything Is and Is Not. This is Not a matter of philosophy it is a matter of Existence... call it... philoscience if you will, yet what is the need for labeling?

The laws of thermo dynamics

For example. Here is the first law of thermo dynamics.

"In any process, the total energy of the universe remains constant." source - wikipedia

The Omni-verse (universe) is Outfinite and Eternal, the creation and destruction of energy is possible because all is accepted, it is simply a matter of choice; choose the reality and the reality Is. Thus, "in any process...", is really now claiming, "in every process". So we can conclude that the creation and destruction of energy is of those any processes Being stated. Creating and destroying energy are processes, not just empty words and ideas.

The Second L.O.T.D.

"There is no process that, operating in a cycle, produces no other effect than the subtraction of a positive amount of heat from a reservoir and the production of an equal amount of work." source - wikipedia

Positive? Negative? Please make reference to the post entitled "The Existential Beingness of Mathematics" to understand why this may Be.

The Second Law uses "theories" such as the Big Bang to claim its authenticity.

Entropy is all-ready entropy and all-ways has Been entropy. The Omni-verse is Perfect and smoothed out all-ready, if it weren't, it would cease to Exist. This idea of Perfect and imperfect are an illusion, but, to put it forth in terms that are understandable, Everything Is Perfect.

"The concept of entropy in thermodynamics is central to the second law of thermodynamics, which deals with physical processes and whether they occur spontaneously" source- wikipedia

Spontaneously? Like instantaneously creating spontaneous ideas from the energy of spontenaety? Or, well, it goes on. Words are simply defined by other words, they only have meaning as far as the reality allows them to. Have fun with them, why are We Being so restricted?

How does a blind man know when he is done wiping? Well, for one thing... if he is wiping he knows whether it is a solid or a liquid... unless he has contrived a slimy case of green and yellow diarrhea, brown if you prefer.

And so We see, even solids Exist as liquids.

Whenever philosophy shall be excluded from science, science shall become of a ship floating the seas in a raging storm with no lights for perception and lacking a sail for propulsion and guidence

[edit on 19-12-2006 by LastOutfiniteVoiceEternal]



posted on Dec, 26 2006 @ 02:42 AM
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I still haven't found a figure for how high the viscosity of a substance needs to be in order to considered a solid is and without enrolling in a materials science course, I may never know, but I now know from what I found in my research that the amount of viscosity is what will determine the answer to my question. Just finding out the standard for constituting a solid or liquid is what's eluding me now. If I find the answer I will post it. If someone else knows the answer, please post it for us and if you can cite where you got the viscosity info from (it's killing me that I can't find it:puz
. I hope everyone had a Merry Christmas.



posted on Dec, 26 2006 @ 11:07 AM
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Originally posted by LastOutfiniteVoiceEternal
"In any process, the total energy of the universe remains constant." source - wikipedia

The Omni-verse (universe) is Outfinite and Eternal, the creation and destruction of energy is possible because all is accepted, it is simply a matter of choice; choose the reality and the reality Is. Thus, "in any process...", is really now claiming, "in every process". So we can conclude that the creation and destruction of energy is of those any processes Being stated. Creating and destroying energy are processes, not just empty words and ideas.


LastOutfiniteVoiceEternal,

Not to step on your speech, but are you familiar with the Law of Conservation of Energy?


It states that:

Energy can neither be created nor distroyed, but only changes forms. It can also be TRANSFERED, However the TOTAL amount of energy remains constant.

Wikipedia- Conservation of Energy

Tim



posted on Dec, 27 2006 @ 05:31 AM
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Yes, Tim.
Well come and thank you for your output, or was it input, neverthemore, yes... familiar with the "laws". The flaw lies here, "...total amount of energy...". There is No total amount of energy in a limitless, shapeless, boundless, Eternal Existence. All is accepted because the possibilities are sempiternal and the boundaries of energy are non-Existent; the boundary of Existence is non-Existence which does not Exist, thus there are No boundaries.

Limitation = [0and9] = Mirrored Eternity

The limitation of limiting limits is limited because of the characteristics of limit, thus We are unlimited. Limiting the unlimited would require an unlimited amount of limit, which would defeat the definition of limit itself. Limit self destructs, as does all of the finite world, the good news is that it self destructs into Eternity and it is not really a destruction at all, rather a transfer, a morphing, a... conservation if you will?

Oops, We have ventured off topic, this is about glass, a solid or a liquid?

[edit on 27-12-2006 by LastOutfiniteVoiceEternal]



posted on Dec, 29 2006 @ 03:23 PM
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Originally posted by T_Jesus
From what I've been taught by professors in chemistry and materials...glass is an extremely vicious liquid. This can be seen on old churches - windows kind of look melted, almost.


It is a myth that old wavy glass is glass that has flowed.

Old windows are wavy because they were made that way. The glass makers from medieval times (or even just 150 years ago) didn't have the technology to make perfectly smooth glass.

The process for making smooth glass - The float glass process - was patented in 1848, 1902, and 1925, but did not become widely commercially available until 1953. Before that, if you wanted smooth glass you had to polish it, which was a very exoesive process. (source: en.wikipedia.org...)

You can still get glass made the old fashioned way from a handful of glass artisans that are still out there - and the glass you get will be wavy.



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