Daedalus, the worlds first VTOL aeroplane with separate lift and cruise engines was the British Short SC.1 with Rolls Royce engines which flew in
1957, three years *before* the Hawker P.1127 (Harrier prototype) with its Bristol Pegasus engine. These were two competing types of arrangement with
Rolls Royce promoting lift/cruise and Bristol pushing the TVC Pegasus. The Pegasus won and Rolls Royce got their revenge by swallowing up Bristol and
everyone now thinks that Rolls invented the Pegasus. Rolls developed and promoted separate lift/thrust (chiefly as a means of flogging more engines
per plane built) for many years afterwards on a range of designs including fighter aircaft (Mirage IIIV), an alternative design to the C-130 Hercules
initially backed by the RAF (AW.681)and even a 100+ seat airliner capable of landing in the heart of London (HS.141) but to no avail, in terms of
knowledge and experience Yak were amateurs by comparison.
In 1978 Rolls developed a new version of the Pegasus which was a 'three poster' allowing allowing a normal afterburning nozzle to be used of the
rear part which could swivel downwards for vertical lift in concert with two side mounted nozzles further forward carried over from the standard
Pegasus. This was proposed in several BAe supersonic ASTOVL proposals in the late 70's and early 80's and it is the rear portion of this engine that
is now used on BOTH engines on offer for the F-35B model, the only difference being that Rolls Royce has a much larger design input into the rest of
the F136 engine as the remainder of the F135, and all of it on the F-35A and C, is entirely designed by GE.
Fritz, VTOL did not quite happen the way you suggest, but you are largely correct in the general gist of it, for instance;
The original VSTOL concept with vectoring nozzles on a fighter aircraft was actually proposed by Frank Whittle in his original 1930 patent for the jet
engine which the Air Ministry did its best to ignore,
originally posted by Frank Whittle in 1930
......the final emission of gas may be directionally controlled by mechanical means giving advantages in take offs and landings and also for
Next came the Russian Shuleikov fighter of 1950. This had the basic appearance of the standard Yak-15/Yak-23 type design but with two vectoring
nozzles under the wing trailing edge root (this is coincidental, there was no Yak involvement at all). This project was not followed through however
and remained completely unknown to anyone outside the USSR until records became available in the 1990's so there was no influence on what
The concept that led to the Harrier was begun by a proposal from Michel Wibault in 1956 called the 'Gyroptere', in this the thrust from the engine
could be diverted to either blow out the back of the plane as normal, or downwards through holes in the bottom of the fuselage for vertical lift. When
shown this concept Stanley Hooker of Bristol liked the concept but felt it could be achieved in a better way and started the chain of events that led
to the Bristol BE.53, the first vectored thrust engine with nozzles, which led directly to the Pegasus.
Daedalus again; Every single AV-8A used by the USMC was built by Hawker Siddeley in the UK ( it was a standard Harrier GR.1 in any case) With regard
to the AV-8B Harrier II, every one of those built was 60% built by MDC/Boeing and 40% BAe, except for those operated by the RAF (and now also Royal
Navy) which were the other way round with 60% BAe and 40% MDC manufacture.
As a final note regarding other comments on previous pages, BAE is also currently upgrading the USAF's entire fleet of A-10's, just to show the USAF
trusts us even if ape doesn't.
If I've missed anything please ask.
[edit on 16-12-2006 by waynos]