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Dynamic Physical Rendering Research at Intel
In a hospital in Houston, two surgeons appear to be performing a difficult procedure on a cardiac patient. In fact, only one of the doctors in the room is real. The other is a replica-a lifelike physical model whose shape, appearance and movements precisely mimic those of a specialist in Tokyo who is performing the actual work.
This scenario may seem like science fiction, but research required to realize it has already begun, in a collaborative research project between Carnegie Mellon University and Intel. The goal of the project, which Intel has labeled Dynamic Physical Rendering (DPR), is to create a new form of media the researchers call pario-Greek for "to bring forth" or "to make."
What the researchers propose to make are moving, physical, three-dimensional replicas of people or objects, so lifelike that human senses would accept them as real. This would eliminate the need for cumbersome virtual reality gear and overcome the viewing angle limitations of modern 3D approaches. The replicas would mimic the shape and appearance of a person or object being imaged in real time, and as the originals moved, so would their replicas. These 3D models would be physical entities, not holograms. You could touch them and interact with them, just as if the originals were in the room with you.
Robotic surgery has different meanings to different people. In its truest definition... it refers to machines autonomously performing surgical procedures. In its current use, it refers to robot-assisted surgery where surgeons operate either directly or over a distance (telesurgery) through robotic end effectors...
The latter systems have found increasing popularity within the subspecialty niches for which they were developed, while the former, the robotic surgical assistants, are still widely viewed as extravagances found at large academic medical centers. As one leading PROPONENT of these systems noted, “as long as I can out-operate a robot I can’t see the use for one”.
PAKY mimics the urologist's manual procedure yet increases its safety, speed, and accuracy. The key advantages of this approach are that it employs a proven radiological needle alignment procedure, improves accuracy in comparison to purely manual placement, and enables lateral fluoroscopic monitoring of the needle.