The paradigm of the New Mathematically Correct Chronology
Our current historical chronology was created during the Renaissance. In short, we are judged in class by our ability to cite ancient and Mediaeval
history, as it was forged or understood in the XVI-XVII centuries. Incidentally, at that time, historical chronology was considered to be a
subdivision of mathematics. Summa sum, with the statistical shredding of the current historical models; a new debate shakes the very foundations of
what were previously considered to be historical timelines.
Modern historians' teach us history by enforcing rote regurgitation of antiquated chronological settings. This topic necessarily constitutes the
debate prerequisite to evolution of historical chronology. The matierials cited are from: "History: Fiction or Science, 1 Chronology," by Anatoly
T. Fomenko and G. Nosovskiy.
Our current chronology is referred to as "Scalagerian," at such points as to refer to the famous Medieval Chronologers’ Iosuph Iustus Scalenger
(1540-1609 AD) and Dionysius Petavius (1583-1652 AD). These are the authors’ of the ecclesiastical chronology, which serves as our current
chronology, but appears to have been utterly forged.
In as professional mathematicians’ Fomenko and Nosovskiy’s statistical and astronomical conclusions have only in recent years been translated from
Russian, "the new chronology" remains either unheard of or altogether new to us all. These authors’ primary interests are quite distant from the
subject of history per se. Their interest derived from dating ancient lunar eclipses as a key problem of celestial mechanics. It all started out as
parameter D" performing an inexplicable leap on the interval of the VIII-X century AD. This peculiar behavior was solely related to trusting in the
exactitude of dating of the ancient eclipses. When N.A. Morozov’s dates were used (he has never been published in English) the D" graph altered
instantly and graphically, having transformed to a rather even horizontal line that concurred with conventional gravitational theory completely.
Alexander Zinoviev, whom is Professor of the Moscow State University, logician, sociologist, writer, member of the Finnish, Bavarian and Italian
Academy of Sciences, etc., and Laureate of the 1982 Alex Tocqueville prize for sociology: and who is published in over 20 languages, wrote the forward
to History: Fiction or Science. Therein, Zinoviev stated, "They flabbergasted me with their sheer disquisitive might as well as the research results
which, in my opinion, can by rights be called the greatest discovery in contemporary historical science-what A.T. Fomenko and his colleagues had
learned over the course of their research was the fact that the entire history of humanity up until the XVII century is a forgery of global
proportions ("old history" in their terminology)-a falsification as deliberate as it was universal. Zinoviev concludes with general observations
concerning "exceptional scientific scrupulousness" of the works, stating: "..after extensive examination…I have neither found a single ipse dixit
statement, not any categorical pontificating of any kind. .. and ending with "Fomenko and G. Nosovskiy have performed a great scientific feat of
A concurring forword is written by A.N. Shiryaev, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Head of
the Probability Theory Studies Department of the V.A. Steklov Mathematics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. "The methods of applied
statistics affect a wide rang of scientific paradigms today, including the research of a great variety of texts. We use the word "text" to refer to
sequences of diverse signals here…such as graphical representations of this kind or the other that can be encoded and represented in a textual form,
as well as actual narrative texts, such as historical chronologies, original original sources, documents etc. One of the key objectives we encounter
here is learning to identify dependant texts, by which we mean texts possessing some degree of affinity between them-similarities in their nature of
history for instance. We may regard the recognition problem as an example, where one is confronted with the task of finding the visual representation
that bears the greatest resemblance to the given prototype. The subject of long signal sequence research emphasizes the ability to find uniform
sequences and their joining points. All of the above bears equal relevance to solving the classical change-point problem, for instance, which is of
vital importance to mathematical statistics and the statistics of stochastic processes.
In application to narrative text studies and their needs, the problem of differentiating between dependant and independent texts (such as chronicles)
can be formulated as that of tracing out the texts that hail back to a common original source ("Dependant"), or those of non-correlating origins
("independent"). It is well understood that problems of this kind are exceptionally complex, and thus new empirico-statistical identification
methods deserve full recognition for their ability to complement classical approaches to actual research (in source studies, for instance). …
Fomenko…suggests a new approach to the recognition of dependant and independent narrative (historical) texts based on a number of models he had
constructed and trends discovered with the aid of new empirico-statistical methods and as a result of extensive statistical experimentation with
varying quantitative characteristics of actual texts such as chronicles, original sources etc. The verification of these models (statistical
hypothesis) by subsistent chronicle material confirmed their efficacy and allowed us to suggest new methods of dating texts, or, rather, the events
they describe. …
…the authors principal ideas are perfectly rational from the point of view of contemporary mathematical statistics and fit into the cognitive
paradigm of experts in applied statistics with the utmost ease.
Seeing as how the book relates to problems that concern several scientific disciplines, one is confronted with the necessity of finding points of
contact between experts working in different areas.
One has to differ clearly here between the primary statistical result achieved by this book, namely, defining the layer structure of the global
chronological map and it’s representation as a "sum" of four layers, and the plethora of available interpretations. Etc.
President of the International Bernoulli
Society for Mathematical Statistics
and Probability Theory in 1989-1991.
Since year zero of the kingdom of Judah falls in the table on year 910 A.D., the chronological shift is approximately 928 + 910=1838 years… Although
this parallelism is a basic one, however, the mediaeval dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire of X-XIII century in itself largely a reflection of a later
dynasty of XIV-XVII century. That is why, to a considerable degree, the epoch of the Kingdom of Judah is actually XIV-XVI century A.D., although
certain events might have taken place in an earlier epoch of XI-XIII century. See p-314.
The entire Old Testament, as well as the entire bible…can actually be restored from the part describing the mediaeval events of 1000-1600 A.D.
Moreover, the New Testament probably describes events occurring in the XI century A.D. in the New Rome, Constantinople.
In particular, the structure of discovered duplicates leads to the conclusion that the epoch of Christ, or the XI century A.D. according to the new
chronology, was reflected in the religious history of Italy of the XI century as "the epoch of Pope Gregory Hildebrand". …However, Pope Gregory
Hildebrand should not be thought to have been the Christ of the New Testament. See P-328
It is possible to break up the Bible into virtually unambiguous "generation chapters" B(T), where the ordinal number T varies from 1 to 218. See
"OUR HYPOTHESIS: HISTORY AS DESCRIBED IN SURVIVING CHRONICLES ONLY BEGINS IN CA. THE X CENTURY A.D".
We know nothing of the events that took place before the X century A.D. See p-333.
Apparently, actual history, -that is, the history described in written sources that have reached to our time, -begins from ca. The X-XI century A.D.
and on. Facts preceding the X century are fairly scanty, located between 300-1000 A.D. Virtually all epochs placed by the Scaligerian textbook before
the X century A.D. are various phantom reflections of the events of the X-XVI century A.D. The Biblical story-that is, all the events of the Old and
the New Testament-fits into the interval between the X century A.D. and the XVI century A.D.
13.2 The letter "X" formerly denoted the name of Christ, but was later proclaimed to stand for the figure of ten. The letter "I" formerly denoted
the name of Jesus, but was later proclaimed to be the indication of one thousand.
The first method: abbreviated form of recording. For instance, "the III century since Christ" could be recorded briefly as "X.III", "X" being
the first letter of the Greek word XPICTOC (Christ). The letter X is one of the prevalent mediaeval anagrams for the name of Christ. Thus, the phrase
"Christ’s Ist century"’ when abbreviated, could read as "X.I", the phrase "Christ’s II century" could read as "X.II", and so on. These
abbreviations may possibly have caused the appearance of the contemporary designation for centuries. However, as of a certain later time the mediaeval
chronologists suggested that the letter "X" in the beginning of a date should stand for the figure of "ten". Such interpretation automatically
adds a thousand years to the initial date. Thus, an erroneous date appears, a thousand years more ancient than the real one. See p-337
Conclusions reached by Anatoly T. Fomenko regarding carbon dating.
Radio carbon dating is flawed. W.F. Libby used false assumptions in reaching his conclusions. In theory, radiocarbon age measurement is simple. It
suffices to know:
1. The radiocarbon volume from the moment of the objects departure from the exchange reservoir.
2. The exact half-life period of radiocarbon C-14. The real activity of ancient specimens may alter from the average value for numerous reasons,
including, but not at all limited to: Cosmic ray intensity changes, a theoretical estimation shows a 20% deviation range. Variations in radiocarbon
concentration depending upon geographical location and the tree species: 8.5% deviation range. at p-88 We deem it nonsensical to attempt the precise
measurement of a value whose theoretical uncontrolled error rate may equal 10% if we are to make modest assumptions. The most optimistic calculations
give a radiocarbon dating uncontrolled error range of 1200 years of arbitrarily added or subtracted age. p-88 Another specialist in radiocarbon
dating, V. Boutomo, is of a more realistic opinion: "due to the considerable fluctuations of C-14's specific activity rate, the radiocarbon datings
of relatively young specimens (under 2000 years of age) cannot be used as fundamental referential data for the absolute chronological scale." See
Summary of miscellaneous Conclusions reached by Anatoly T. Fomenko.
1. It turned out that "the Scaligerian textbook" was compiled from four copies of one and the same brief chronicle.
2. Fomenko discovered three important chronological shifts, of approximately 333 years, 1053, and 1800 years respectively.
3. There are no Hebraic manuscripts of the Bible predating the IX century A.D. (!) in existence, although those of a more recent time, primarily the
middle of the alleged XIII century A.D., are kept in many national libraries. The oldest Hebraic manuscript is a fragment of the Books of the
Prophets, and is dated to 859 A.D. One of the two oldest manuscripts "is dated to 916 A.D. and contains the Books of the Prophets; the other is dated
to 1008 A.D. and contains the text of the Old Testament."
However, the first manuscript was dated to 1228 by the scribe. The so-called Babylonian punctuation of letters given here allows this text to be dated
to the Seleucid Era, which gives us 916 A.D. However, there are no serious foundations for such a statement, and it is hence possible that the dating
was given in years since Christ, in which case the manuscript would belong to the XIII century and not the X.
4) It is supposed that the Biblical canon was agreed upon by
the Laodician Council in 363 A.D., but no edicts of this Council remain in
existence, and the same concerns the previous Councils.
5) In accordance with the new chronology (as reconstructed) Julius Caesar does not appear before the XI century A.D., the count by Olympiads could not
have been introduced before the XI century A.D.; and, most probably, coincides with the Christian count of years from the Nativity of Jesus Christ,
which…began at around 1000 A.D. or 1053 A.D., or the year of the Nativity of Jesus Christ in the XI century. See-p. 370
6) "Dionysius the Little from the VI century" is actually nothing but a phantom reflection of the actual Dionysius Petavius…from the XVI-XVII
century A.D. Hence, Dionysius Petavius = Dionysius the Little turns out to have apparently been the first to have correctly calculated the date of
Jesus Christ’s Crucifixion approximately six hundred years before his own time. As we understand now, he was absolutely right, since by counting six
hundred years back from the XVI-XVII century we obtain exactly the XI century A.D. when, in accordance with our reconstruction, Jesus Christ actually
lived and was crucified. See-p. 371
7) The "ancient" historian Tacitus appears to have been the same person as the well known renaissance writer Poggio Bracciolini. See-p. 386 The
French expert Hochart and the English expert Ross have independently proclaimed the History of Cornelius Tacitus to have actually been written in the
XV century by Poggio Bracciolini. In other words, they accused Bracciolini of premeditated forgery. See-p. 388
8) According to the new chronology, the "ancient" Dionysian (Baccic) pagan cult prevailed in Western Europe in the Middle Ages, that is in the
XIII-XVI century, and not in "distant antiquity". N.A. Morozov in his analysis of ecclesial history has paid attention to the known, albeit
oftentimes withheld, fact of the openly Bacchic practice of Christian officiations in Mediaeval Italy and France, where liturgies often transformed
into orgies, convents would frequently serve as houses of ill repute, etc…. The nuns’ clothing didn’t help austerity, either, since it served to
emphasize their natural beauty and gracefulness… Nearly all Italian monasteries [according to Rodocanachi, La Femme Italienne, avant, pendent et
apres la Renaissance, Paris, 1922, allowed male visitors…As for Venetian monasteries-Casanova is not the only source of information in what regards
those; St. Didier writes that "nothing attracted as much interest in Venice as the monasteries." Noblemen have been frequent visitors there too.
Since all of the nuns were beautiful and clean-limbed, none of them went without a lover. … During the Venetian carnival (which would last almost
half a year over there), convents would turn into dance halls and become filled with masked men…The dresses have been narrow, fitting tight around
the waist, with large, scoop necklines which demonstrated the white and voluptuous bodies of the nuns." See-p. 394 citing "The Life and Activity of
Balthazar Cossa (Pope John XXIII) by Alexander Paradisis. Id-p. 395
9) The necessity of crushing the orgiastic Christian cult entailed the establishment of the Inquisition for the initiation of hard-line reforms in
both clerical and secular life of Western Europe. We should point out that the Eastern Orthodox Church and Russia in particular have never seen such
open and wide dispersion of Bacchic practices. That is why there was no Inquisition in the Orthodox Church. See-p. 397
10) According to Humphrey Davy, "the Pompeian painters and the Italian painters of the Renaissance epoch used identical paints. Citing A Systemic
Description of Pompeii and the Artifacts Discovered there. Klassovsky, St. Petersburg, 1848. Id-p.407
The Coordination of a New Astronomical Dating With a Dynastic Parallel.
a. The Star of Bethlehem. This flash actually occurred in 1054 A.D…. A famous supernova explosion was recorded in 1054. See p-365
b. Total eclipse at the time of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ. An accurate dating provides two possibilities: either the lunar eclipse of 1075
A.D., or a solar eclipse of 1086. See p-366
c. The Apocalypse. Our new astronomical dating of the Apocalypse in compliance with the horoscope contained therein, yields 1486 A.D.
d. Explosions of Stars. The explosions of stars are an important example of irregular phenomena. The dates of "ancient explosions" appear to be
obtained from shifting the dates of actual mediaeval explosions by approximately 333 years, 1053 years, or 1778 years downwards. In particular, the
dates of all explosions allegedly of 900 B.C.-390 A.D. are obtained from the dates of explosions of the X-XIII century by shifting them 1053 years
backwards. … The explosion of the alleged year of 186 A.D. "is obtained" from an actual explosion of 1230 A.D. See p-366
e. Thucydides. The Scaligerian history dates the three eclipses described by the "antique" Thucydides back to the V century, namely, the years
431, 424 and 413 A.D. Upon precise astronomical dating all three are lifted to the XI or the XII century A.D.
f. Titus Livy. Scaligerite chronologists dated the eclipse described by Titus Livy in his History back to the middle of the II century A.D.,
allegedly 168 A.D. Upon precise astronomical dating it was identified with the eclipse of 955 A.D, or that of 1020 A.D. See p-367
g. Ptolemy’s Almagest. Ptolemy’s Almagest is considered to have been compiled in the time of the "ancient" Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius
(allegedly 138-161 A.D.), in the second year of his reign. However in our dating, the star catalogue Almagest dates back to a completely different
epoch, namely, the VII-XVI century A.D. By precession of longitudes, the Latin edition of Almagest dates back to approximately XV-XVI century A.D. It
is interesting that the epoch of the first editions of the Almagest-allegedly around 1530 A.D.-differs from 140 A.D. (that is, the second year of the
reign of Antoninus Pius) by approximately 1390-1400 years as well.
h. Zodiacs of Dendera. The Scaligerian dating of the Round and Long Zodiacs in the Dendera Temple in Egypt-allegedly circa 30 B.C. (or 54-68 A.D.)
and the alleged years 14-37 A.D. The exact astronomical solution is completely different-namely, 1185 A.D. for the Round Zodiac and 1168 A.D. for the
i. Horoscopes of Athribis. Scaligerite historians dated the two horoscopes of Athribis discovered by Flinders Petrie, a famous Egyptologist, back
to circa 59 A.D. However, the exact astronomical solution yields 1230 and 1268 A.D., respectively.
The paradigm of the New Mathematically Correct Chronology may be carried for discussion as allowed. This submission is made solely from the viewpoint
of the New Chronology.
None of the astronomical or chronological facts contained herein are other than those formulated and expounded upon by Anatoly Fomenko, 1
Chronology-"History: Fiction or Science? Delamere Publishing 2003. Any errors made in reproduction are merely due to clerical error. In order to
explore the paradigm, it is essential that a copy of the volumes be purchased and studied. Quotations made are of brief passages by way of review.
There is a greater probability than not that Fomenko has reached correct conclusions.