reply to post by Rockpuck
Even though big climate events like El Nino affect global temperatures, the increasing role of human-made pollutants plays a big part. Scientists,
like Hansen, have been working to try and predict how human impacts on our climate will affect the annual world temperature trends in the future.
Hansen also said that now, Earth's surface absorbs more of the Sun's energy than gets reflected back to space. That extra energy, together with the
weak El Nino, is expected to make 2005 warmer than the years of 2003 and 2004 and perhaps even warmer than 1998, which had stood out as far hotter
than any year in the preceding century.
(Note:Go to sit for image)
Image above: Looking at Average Monthly Global Temperatures: This is a global map of unusual (anomaly) monthly-mean surface temperatures for the year
2004 relative to the 1951-1980 baseline. The maps run from Dec. 2003 through Nov. 2004. Natural variability is evident from month to month during the
year. Most of the United States was unusually cool during the summer of 2004. Yellow and red areas were warmer by comparison to the baseline, while
the white and blue areas were cooler. Click on image to enlarge. Credit: NASA
Another interesting note is that global warming is now large enough that it is beginning to affect seasons, and make them warmer than before on a more
Compared to the average temperatures from the 1951 to 1980 period, the largest unusually warm areas over all of 2004 were in Alaska, near the Caspian
Sea, and over the Antarctic Peninsula. But compared to the previous five years, the United States as a whole was quite cool, particularly during the
For the original article by Drs. James Hansen and Makiko Sato, please visit on the Internet: www.giss.nasa.gov...
Goddard Space Flight Center
The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) on June 24 unveiled its annual World Disasters Report for 1999. The report
says 1998 was the worst year on record for losses from natural disasters
2005 TO BE HOTTEST ON RECORD
2-25-05 (MSNBC) Last year was the fourth warmest since recordkeeping
began in the 1880s and 2005 could go down as the warmest ever recorded,
NASA scientists reported in a new analysis of temperature data.
"There has been a strong warming trend over the past 30 years, a trend
that has been shown to be due primarily to increasing greenhouse gases
in the atmosphere," said James Hansen of NASA's Goddard Institute for
Space Studies, based in New York.
The most common greenhouse gas emitted by human activity is carbon
dioxide. The burning of fossil fuels and trees, both of which store
carbon, have added CO2 emissions to Earth's natural levels.
Hansen and NASA colleague Makiko Sato noted that two additional
factors are expected to play into 2005 temperatures.
One is the presence of El Nino, when warm water spreads over much of
the tropical Pacific Ocean.
The other, they said, is that the Earth's surface now absorbs more
of the sun's energy than gets reflected back to space.
"The Earth is now out of energy balance," Hansen and Sato wrote.
"One result of this imbalance is that it makes it likely that global
temperature in 2005, aided also by a weak El Nino, will exceed those
of 2003 and 2004 and perhaps even the temperature of 1998, which had
stood out far above the temperature of any year in the preceding
Last year was the the fourth-warmest on record, with a global mean
temperature of 57 degrees Fahrenheit. That's about 1.5 degrees
warmer than the middle of the century.
Geological Events of 1958-1998
May 1960: A giant, M9.5, earthquake hit southern Chile. This was the strongest quake in the entire world in the last century. Catastrophic changes
(upheavals) occurred to the land surface and sea floor, and tsunamis killed people as far away as Hawaii.
March 1964: The Good Friday earthquake and tsunami of March 27 devastated Anchorage and the surrounding region. At M9.2, this giant quake was the
largest in North America in the last century, and the Earth's crust beneath Prince William Sound and vicinity was upheaved, twisted and broken.
1970-1971: These years bracket unusually frequent eruptions of the volcanoes Krafla and Hekla on Iceland (65šN), and Beerenberg on Jan Mayen Island
(71šN) in the Arctic region. They can be considered to be precursor eruptions for "upheavals in the Arctic."
June 1994: The great (M8.2) Bolivian quake of June 9 occurred at an enormous depth of nearly 400 miles. It was felt throughout much of the western
hemisphere, and even made the Earth ring like a bell, exciting modes of vibration never before seen. Also, in reading 3976-15, it is said that,
"South America will be shaken from the uppermost portion to the end." Such shaking occurred during the Bolivian earthquake, which presages the
future for South America as the Earth changes accompanying pole shift intensify.
1993-1996: Extremely strong seismic activity occurred in northern Honshu and Hokkaido, Japan, during this interval. Five M7.2-M7.5, and one M8.1
earthquake were accompanied by more M6 or larger quakes than at any time since 1926. Also, the land surface over a wide area on the Pacific side of
northern Honshu was found to have been sinking over the 30-year period from 1966 to 1995.
July 1996: Hawaii's Kilauea and Loihi volcanoes are two of the world's most active torrid-area volcanoes. Kilauea has erupted continuously since
January 1983. Submerged Loihi -- just offshore of Kilauea -- has erupted almost continuously since 1982. Seismic and eruptive activity peaked in July
1996. These volcanoes reflect the predicted worldwide increase in eruptions of torrid-area volcanoes, both on land and beneath the sea.
March 1998: The great Balleny Sea earthquake off Antarctica, was the largest ever detected within an oceanic crustal plate. It's location and
strength were completely unexpected by the world's seismologists. At M8.2, it was also the largest quake to occur worldwide in the last five years.
Located near the south magnetic pole, the quake may be considered to be one of the "upheavals in the Arctic and the Antarctic" to occur just prior
to pole shift.
October 1998 - October 1999: An unusual cluster of 17 light earthquakes (M4.5-4.9) and 23 moderate quakes (M5.0-5.5) occurred in the high Arctic,
centered approximately at 85.7N and 81.4E. This cluster may be a precursor of crustal uplift, or mass movements in the mantle, beneath the Arctic
Ocean. The quakes occurred north of Severnaya Zemlya, near the top of the world.
Upheavals Since 1998
Listed now are upheavals that have occurred since the end of the 40-year, 1958-1998 interval. They seem to fit the "upheavals" mentioned in 378-16
Northwest Turkey was shaken by an M7.4 earthquake on August 17, 1999. The magnitude of the tremor tied that of the 1912 Turkey temblor for the
strongest quake of the last century in that country. Horizontal offsets along various segments of the North Anatolian fault approached 16 ft. and
vertical upthrusts of up to seven ft. were noted. Perhaps 20,000 people were killed, and considerable earthquake damage occurred in Istanbul. Then, on
November 12, 1999, an M7.1 quake occurred 70 miles east of the August shock, on the same fault, producing additional crustal changes.
On September 21, 1888, the largest earthquake of the last century in Taiwan struck near Chi-Chi. Extensive surface ruptures occurred over 53 miles of
the Chelungpu fault. The maximum horizontal displacement of 32 ft. is among the largest fault displacement ever measured in modern earthquakes. The
Tachia River was cut by a 25 ft. vertical upheaval that created a new waterfall.