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Kilo Class submarines have been nicknamed 'Black Hole' by NATO for their silent operation in the sea. An agreement with Russia was concluded in the mid-1980s for the transfer of eight Kilo Class submarines. The first submarine in the class - INS Sindhugosh - was commissioned in April 1986 in Riga, Russia and seven more boats entered service with the Indian Navy in another five years. In January 1997, two 'improved' Kilo Class boats were ordered by the Indian Navy and the first - INS Sindhurakshak - was commissioned in December 1997 in St. Petersburg, Russia. This submarine was a spare Type 877EKM hull built for the Russian Navy, but was never purchased. The second boat - INS Sindhushastra - commissioned in July 2000 also at St. Petersburg, is rumoured to be a Type 636.
INS Sindhuvir completed a two-year mid-life refit at the Admiralty Shipyard, St. Petersburg in April 1999 and she was ready for active service in October 1999. INS Sindhuraj returned to Mumbai after completing her refit, also at the Admiralty Shipyard. INS Sindhukesari returned to Mumbai after completing her refit at the Zvyozdochka (Little Star) shipyard in Severodvinsk. INS Sindhuratna also completed her refit at Zvyozdochka SY and in September 2002, left on her return journey to India. INS Sindhugosh is the third submarine to complete her refit at the Zvyozdochka SY and returned to India in late 2005. INS Sindhuvijay is the next submarine expected to undergo a modernisation, which began in June 2005 also at the Zvyozdochka SY.
The mid-life refit involves a complete overhaul of the submarine, including its hull structure. An upgrade package is also part of this extensive refit, which has been designed by Zvyozdochka's Onega Research & Development Technological Bureau and costs roughly US $80 million. The refit sees the submarines being installed with the Klub-S ASCM (a maximum of five missiles can be carried) and the associated Lama-ER control system, new sonars (probably the MGK-400EM), electronic warfare systems, new control systems from Avrora such as the Palladij-M machinery control system and the AICS (Automated Information & Control system) integrated weapon control system.
Sixteen 3M-24E (Kh-35 Uran or NATO: SS-N-25 Switchblade) AShMs, housed in four quadruple KT-184 launchers, angled at 30º, two on either side of the bridge superstructure. Equivalent to the Harpoon Block 1C AShM, these missiles have active radar homing (ARH) out to a range of 130 km at 0.9 Mach, with a 145 kg warhead. All 16 missiles can be ripple-fired in 2-3 second intervals. The Delhi Class will be retrofitted with the GLONASS-steered, land-attack 3M24E1 Uranium AShM at a later date. The 3M24E1 AShM - export variant of the 3M24M1 - has more fuel, which extends range to 250 km.
In the air defence role, a pair of 3S-90 launchers - one installed forward of the bridge and the other atop the dual helicopter hangar - are fitted with the Shtil SAM system. The Shtil system comprises of the 9M38M1 (SA-N-7, navalised SA-11) missile and 24 such missiles are carried in a below-decks magazine. The launchers elevate up to 70º but have a limited firing arc of 30º within the centreline. The launcher groups require a crew of 20 men and weigh about 50 tons. Target tracking data is provided by the MR-775 Fregat MAE planar array radar which can engage up to 12 targets at ranges of 32 km. Target illumination and semi-active homing is provided via six MR-90 Orekh (NATO: Front Dome) illuminators, four mounted forward and two aft.
The 9M38M1 SAM, designated as Kashmir by the Indian Navy, is armed with a 70 kg high-explosive warhead, has a maximum speed of Mach 3 (830 m/s) and can manoeuvre up to 20 g. The missile can handle target aircrafts traveling at 420 to 830 m/s and incoming missiles moving at 330 to 830 m/s. The reaction time is 16 to 19 seconds and the advertised kill percentage is 81 to 96% for a two-missile salvo. Ranges against aircraft are 3 km to 32 km with altitudes from 15 metres to 15 km. Ranges against incoming missiles are 3.5 km to 12 km with altitudes from 10 metres to 10 km. The missile probably has a secondary anti-ship capability.
The Delhi Class are the largest warships ever to be built in India and primarily act as command and control platforms for task groups and as screening escorts for the aircraft carriers. INS Mumbai, is more advanced than the other two vessels in the Delhi Class though minor modifications are already taking place on INS Delhi and INS Mysore. These vessels are well suited for power projection roles in the Indian Ocean Region and are fully fitted with flag facilities. The Delhi Class is also capable of operating in a NBC environment and Radar-Cross-Section reduction is presumed to be minimal, to the extent that some sharp angles have been flattened.
Originally posted by Daedalus3
Its very tough to execute a 'Pearl Harbour' these days, but then again, if you fly your maritime strike a/c only some 10s of feet ASL and you have a pre-emptive motive then anything's possible!
I agree entirely but alas I lack the time for such an exercise. In general the Indian side have a massive targeting advantage. Both sides are relatively well trained. I guess nukes are the great equaliser but aside from that, I think Pakistan is way out gunned in almost every respect.
Originally posted by the_sarge
Great job planeman. You've got a good system, but wouldnt training, tactics and experience be some of the most important factors (no point having great equipment if you cant use it effectively). While this would be nearly impossible to rate, somthing that does fit in with your rating sytem and is important are the targeting and detection equipment fitted out on the ships, planes, land based systems.
Four P-20M (SS-N-2D) AShMs, in single-tube launchers, with infra-red (Mod 2) homing to 45n miles; 83 km at 0.9 Mach. Becomes a sea skimmer at the end of run. Has a 513 kg warhead. The forward P-20M missile cells (port and starboard) aboard INS Rajput have been replaced with two boxed launchers housing four PJ-10 (BrahMos) ASCMs. D51 served as the trials platform for the missile, which can be fitted with a conventional or nuclear payload of 200 kg. The missile has a range of ~300 km at 14,000 metres or 120 km at 10 to 15 metres. The missile is believed to have a first stage solid-fuelled booster and a second stage liquid-fuelled ramjet.
A pair of twin launchers is fitted with the S-125M (SA-N-1) SAM. This surface-to-air missile has a range of 17n miles; 31.5 km at Mach 2+. The missile has a 60 kg warhead weight and has a maximum altitude of 75,000 ft. The missiles, total of 44 on-board, have some surface-to-surface capability. Fire control is provided by two (NATO: Peel Group) radar at H/I-band frequency with a range of 40n miles (73 km).
One (or probably both) of the last two vessels have had a pair of their AK-630M gunmounts replaced with the Barak-I SAM system, with fire control provided by a pair of EL/M-2221 STGR radars
Two RBU-6000 mortars with 12 tubes and a range of 6000 meters. The maximum target submarine engagement depth is 500 meters.
Has one helicopter pad in the aft of the vessel which carries the Ka-28 Helix-A. Can also carry the HAL Chetak helicopter if required.
The Navy has already fitted four two-tube missile launchers onboard INS Rajput, a Kashin class destroyer. All five warships of this class would get BrahMos.
Originally posted by Stealth Spy
Superb analysis planeman. Have you taken India's nuclear subs and their nuclear SLBM delivery ability into account ?
The reason why India is so far ahead is because the Indian Navy seeks and persues strategic parity with the Chinese navy, and not the paki navy.