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The Art of Drug Development
The basic philosophy of modern chemotherapy development can be understood by way of an analogy: During the American Revolution, when distant troops needed to communicate, a message was sent by messenger on horseback, who carried it some distance and then passed it to another rider who did the same. This relay was continued until the message reached its destination. For the enemy to stop a message from being received, all that was required was to stop any one of the riders along the chain. Anti-cancer drug development is very much like this. In order to understand how this is true though, it is first necessary to understand cellular communications.
Communications within the cell (intracellular communications) is achieved through a series of proteins called a signaling pathway; one protein carries the message to another protein, which then carries the message to the next. This relay continues until the message reaches its destination. Intracellular communication in this manner is vital to all cellular functions, including cell division.
In normal, healthy cells, the intracellular signaling pathways controlling cellular division are activated from outside the cell, through complex communications with other cells (extracellular communications). The needs of the other cells in the surrounding tissue helps to determine whether or not an individual cell will divide. If the extracellular control over cell division is blocked for any reason, the cell may become autonomous, and can begin to divide independently of the others around it. The intracellualar messages may still be telling the cell to divide, even when it is detrimental to the surrounding tissue. This can lead to tumor formation. Because these cells no longer respond to extracellular communications, we must target intracellular communications if we are to stop tumor formation and progression. To accomplish this, we can choose one of the proteins in the signalling pathway and we develop drugs to stop it from carrying the message to the next protein. In effect we “shoot” the messenger.
Developing the “bullets” (drugs) with which to shoot these messengers is complicated by the fact that healthy cells utilize many of the same messengers that healthy cells use. These messengers are required for healthy cells in the body to survive. If we target messengers that are found in healthy and tumor cells in comparable amounts, we will also kill healthy cells. The goal is to target messengers that occur exclusively or predominantly in tumor cells. Another complicating factor is that healthy cells contain many other intracellular signaling pathways besides those controlling cellular division, but which are still essential for survival. The messengers in these pathways share many similarities with messengers we are trying to stop. Therefore the drug must possess a high degree of selectivity towards our target. In addition, the body has developed critical defenses for protection against the many chemicals found in the environment. An effective drug must be capable of circumventing these defenses; otherwise it will be destroyed before reaching its target. Finally, the drug must not be too large, as it will have difficulty crossing the cell membrane and finding its target. These are the major considerations we face in trying to develop drugs to treat cancer patients.
"EPA carries out a significant portion of its mission through the Operating Program, which includes its core responsibilities for regulatory development, enforcement, research, and program grants to states."
"The program guarantees results, by eliminating costly regulation, litigation, inspection, and enforcement actions. As a result, industry compliance has been nearly 100 percent."
Originally posted by Long Lance
You know what, Contentious? i can see why you're fed up with established science, because it's their _______ duty to warn of such threats and use their influence to actually stop it, there is no excuse, of course and many people in so called regulating agencies are bullied and bribed into complicity with the industry. who's responsible, though, those who developed f-ex. aspartame or those who insist to use the government to put whatever they want into food and water?
like ritual sacrifice, deadly medicine is faithfully accepted as divine punishment.
Originally posted by Contentious
Seriously, you know that the PTB are taking us where 'they' would like to be, or to a point where they are satisfied with their level of power and ability to control people.