A new H5N1 bird flu mutation with a 91% fatality rate in humans appeared this month: between March 1 and March 24 of 2006, the WHO reported 12 new
H5N1 cases with 11 deaths. By comparison, H5N1’s fatality rate was 50% in 2004 and 2005 with a total of 131 new cases and 66 deaths. The new
virulently fatal Asian H5N1 mutation creates a second genetic track for H5N1 to spread easily from human-to-human. It is spreading through Asia,
Europe and Africa and is expected to enter North America with migratory birds, if not on consumer goods or with travellers. The mainstream media is
focusing on studies that show humans are resistant to airborne H5N1. Few acknowledge that the H5N1 virus is shed in bodily fluids and spreads mainly
via wastewater into waterways, and on physical contact. The virus can live for months on cold surfaces and up to 200 days in water; it infects fish,
and animals that drink contaminated water. Unlike most flus, H5N1 can enter the human body through the gut as well as the respiratory system - via
contaminated water and infected meat.
WHO Cumulative Figures.
March 24, 2006: 186 Cases; 105 Deaths.
March 1, 2006: 174 Cases; 94 Deaths.
January 30, 2006:160 Cases; 85 Deaths.
December 30, 2005: 142 Cases; 74 Deaths.
January 28, 2004: 11 Cases; 8 Deaths.
"The geographic expansion this year has been, I think,
greater and worse than most of us could have expected,"' said Malik Peiris, professor of microbiology at the University of Hong Kong. ..."It
is certainly a cause for concern because the more areas where humans keep on getting challenged by this virus, the more chance there is for the virus
to adapt for human transmission,'' Peiris said in a telephone interview today.
An analysis of more than 300 samples of the H5N1 virus taken from humans and birds has revealed that its family tree has started to branch out in a
way that could make it more threatening to people. ...the changes are worrying because they show that the virus is increasing in genetic diversity.
...It will also make it more difficult for scientists to monitor the way that the virus is changing, so as to track potentially dangerous
“Back in 2003 we only had one genetically distinct population of H5N1 with the potential to cause a human pandemic. Now we have two.” ...“The
more mutations that are seen, the more the virus is able to mutate, the greater the chances of the virus changing.”
...Influenza viruses are separated into strains, which are labelled according to the particular versions of two proteins that they carry -
haemagluttinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). ...These strains are then subdivided into genetic groups called genotypes, and some genotypes can be
separated further into smaller units called clades.
Bird flu mutation 'adds to threat of human pandemic'
...the cells bearing the type of receptor the avian virus is known to favor are clustered in the deepest branches of the human respiratory tract,
keeping it from spreading by coughs and sneezes.
Human flu viruses typically
infect cells in the upper respiratory tract.
Virologists know (H5N1) infection occurs through contact with blood, feces and other body fluids, and WHO officials recently
reiterated the flu virus is also airborne, posing even a greater threat than AIDS.
Cheng said there may be other cases in which people became infected through human-to-human transmission, but there isn't enough evidence to prove it.
There may also be many less severely ill people going unnoticed.
Birds spread the disease through droppings and other secretions, which often contaminate shared feed and
water. Domesticated birds show a sudden decline in egg production a few days after they contract the illness; other symptoms include nasal
discharge, ...severe internal bleeding, organ damage, and sudden death.
(H5N1), spread through bird feces, saliva and infected water... "You have to test the birds and test the water," Fair said.
"If you find it in a lake, influenzas can hang around for a month. Some studies have shown it
staying over 200 days." ...The longer the disease remains in the water, the more likely it is to find other host species, Fair said.
A German scientist said Tuesday
the entry of
faeces from infected poultry into the food chain via fish was a likely cause of the global spread of bird flu - and not migrating wild birds.
'We are moving away from the assumption that migrating birds are the cause,' said Josef H. Reichholf, a zoology professor at Munich's Technical
University, in a comment published by the newspaper Die Welt.
'We will have to live with bird flu in the future,' said Reichholf, adding: 'Perhaps we already have been for years and just didn't know it
because ...dead birds ...were not tested.'
H5N1 9A ...severely attacks fish with particular virulence. The
fish bones turn soft...
July, 2004: We report the first case of avian influenza in a patient with fever and diarrhea but no respiratory symptoms.
Avian influenza should be included in the
differential diagnosis for patients with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly if they have a history of exposure to poultry.
In 1957, Dr. Rob Webster discovered that human flu is related to bird flu.
By 1959, H5N1 bird flu was discovered in chickens in Scotland where it was isolated and used in
...but few paid attention to what he saw as a great danger. ..."The veterinarians said, 'Not a
problem.' The medical people said, 'Not a problem,'" recalls Webster.
It is a Type A influenza virus, able to infect a wide variety of species without acquiring new genetic material, including birds,
fish, whales, humans and other mammals. Birds and whales both migrate, and flu viruses mutate constantly, which means H5N1 has been circulating around
the world and mutating for almost 50 years. Scientists have been monitoring H5N1 and warning authorities about it for decades.
H5N1 likely started with humans, spread to fish via wastewater flushing into waterways, to domestic poultry in feed made from ground up contaminated
fish, to migratory birds from poultry waste and only then back to domestic poultry, say experts like Germany’s Reichholf.
of faeces from infected poultry into the food chain via fish was a likely cause of the global spread of bird flu - and not migrating wild
The virus may be spreading through contaminated feed, Munich-based
ornithologist Josef Reichholf said, according to Focus magazine.
No one knows how many times this cycle has gone round or how many other animals are infected. But virologists do know that cats, leopards, lions and
other land-based predators are at risk, along with chimpanzees and gorillas.
..."there is growing evidence that the H5N1 virus can infect and harm big cats like
leopards and tigers, small cats such as civets and other mammals like martens, weasels, badgers and otters."
...the experts emphasised there was evidence pointing at the possibility for the H5N1 virus to be
transmitted to wild animals such as cats, panthers and leopards in the jungle
habitats. ...(and) stressed the need to give special attention to biodiversity-rich countries, particularly those with populations of chimpanzees and
No one is saying outright that H5N1 bird flu is epidemic in fish, sharks or whales - never mind tuna. But scientists at the recent international
Convention on Biological Diversity highlighted the possible links between H5N1 bird flu and the planet's sixth extinction event.
...(H5N1's) impact on biological diversity and on species may be far wider and more complex than might have been initially supposed," Ahmed
Djoghlaf, CBD executive secretary, told conference attendees.
* The average abundance of species declined 40 percent between 1970 and 2000 while
species in rivers, lakes and marshlands have declined by 50 percent.
* Between 12 and 52 percent of species within well-studied higher taxa including birds, mammals and amphibians are threatened with extinction.
* In the North Atlantic, populations of large fish have declined 66 percent in the last 50 years.
H5N1 bird flu is "in many ways a threat of our own making," says Djoghlaf. Western agricultural practices - especially
- have lessened domestic animals' ability to resist disease.
"... (H5N1) is in many ways a threat of our own making. For
example, reduced genetic diversity in domestic animals like poultry in favor of a 'monoculture' in the last 50 years has resulted in a reduction of
resistance to many diseases."
"There is also growing evidence that a healthy environment can act as a buffer against old and the emergence of new diseases whereas a degraded one
favors the spread of infections.
Is there something in the environment that is constantly changing and can govern the genetics of appearance and health, leading, instead, to
diversity? ..."More and more evidence indicates that the most changeable part of
the environment consists of parasites, bacteria and viruses. All of these, especially viruses, evolve more rapidly than the hosts whose resources they
live off of. The host will therefore always be in an important evolutionary race against its diseases," explains Mans Andersson, who directs
the research team.
The findings not only enhance our understanding of why animals behave and look the way they do but also help explain why animals that choose their own
mates produce healthier offspring than animals whose mates are selected by humans.
In poultry, influenza virus is released in respiratory secretions and excretions and droppings of infected birds where it is protected by organic
material. The virus is labile in warm conditions, but can survive for months in a cold environment. Once AI is introduced into the poultry industry it
is transmitted from farm to farm by direct and indirect contact. AI viruses are
transmitted by movement of poultry and manure and on contaminated shoes, clothing, crates, and other equipment. Thus, people and equipment
coming in contact with poultry and poultry manure are associated with spread of the disease. Influenza virus has been isolated from turkey eggs and
semen, but there is no evidence of egg transmission. Improper disposal of infected eggs could potentially expose other susceptible birds...
African countries are being warned to take steps to prevent their cattle from becoming infected with H5N1 bird flu.
African countries, notably the Seychelles and Mauritius, have been advised to suspend their poultry imports from Hawaii (US) in order to
make sure their cattle are not contaminated by avian flu.
North American authorities recognize two "pathotypes" of bird flu or Avian Influenza (AI): low or mildly pathogenic(LPAI or MPAI) and highly
pathogenic (HPAI). A strain is not categorized as highly pathogenic until it kills 75% of birds infected.
HPAI strains typically are detected as a result of poultry deaths... The designation of high pathogenicity generally is based on what happens to
healthy chickens when they're exposed to the virus. If
the virus kills at least 6 out of 8 chickens in a challenge trial, it is deemed highly pathogenic.
Mild bird flus are known to mutate into highly pathogenic forms. However, only an HPAI diagnosis triggers government intervention in North America. US
scientists have recommended eradication programs for mild forms of H5 and H7 bird flu, but the experts have been ignored and their recommendations
dismissed for "economic" reasons.
History has proven that prevention of HPAI is based on successful control of H5 or H7 LPAI.
There is little disagreement that all outbreaks of MPAI should be controlled with some urgency. However, there are no government policies to help
with control. Further, there is no indemnity program in most states or countries to fund aggressive killing and destruction of MPAI infected
Once MPAI is introduced into the poultry industry, control is largely dependent on voluntary efforts, since there are no official government
eradication programs (Poss, 1986).
...It has been suggested that [www.cvm.umn.edu...]a change in policy from ignoring to eradicating H5 and H7 MPAI
should be considered[/url] (Capua et al 2000a).
Various forms of low pathogenicity avian influenza have
existed in the United States since the early 1900's.
Meat and eggs from poultry with MPAI are sold legally as food in the USA, Canada and other countries. The evidence suggests that humans infected with
MPAI serve as "mixing vessels" to create more virulent and deadly mutations.
High path flu is very quickly fatal: symptoms include severe internal bleeding, organ damage, and sudden
Gastrointestinal manifestations, raised liver enzymes, renal failure unrelated to
rhabdomyolysis, and pancytopenia were unusually prominent.
Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis
of human disease associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus. Lancet. 1998 Feb 14;351(9101):467-71. PMID: 9482437
Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical influenza-like symptoms, such as fever, cough, sore throat and muscle aches, to eye infections
(conjunctivitis), pneumonia, acute respiratory distress, viral pneumonia, and other severe and life-threatening complications.
FACTBOX: Bird flu's rapid march around the globe
"This virus spreads outside the lungs to the central nervous system ...[The animal] gets hind-leg
paralysis and dies. This is the first influenza virus we've seen that does this in a mammal."
Low path flu is less obvious. H5N1 bird flu pathology is found in connective tissue of the blood vessels, lungs, gut, heart, brain and other organs,
and is known to infect "apidose" or fat cells. The symptoms generally depend on the severity of the infection, its length, and the locations of
infection in the body.
With LPAI outbreaks in poultry there is mild to moderate inflammation of the trachea, sinuses, air sacs and conjunctiva. In laying birds there
often is ovarian atresia and involution of the oviduct. Various degrees of congestive, hemorrhagic,
transudative, and necrotic lesions have been described.
Chronic infection with low path bird flu is not recognized in humans. However, the chronic disease pandemic sweeping the globe has the same pathology
as H5N1 bird flu: the proliferation of abnormal myofibroblasts in connective tissue and smooth muscle cells throughout the body with aberrant wound
healing and "tissue remodelling."
ATSNN. Bird Flu and Beyond: Chronic Disease to Kill 400 Million
ATSNN: Bird Flu, and the "Neglected Epidemic"
Diagnosing H5N1 bird flu requires molecular diagnostic testing - which is not routine. In March of 2004, researchers from the Neuroscience Research
Institute in Peking recommended the use of molecular diagnostics towards the establishment of "systems of sensitive and fast detection methods as the
first line of alarm." Such systems have not been created or implemented anywhere in North America.
See: The necessity of molecular
diagnostics for avian flu
There is no vaccine available for H5N1 bird flu. Reverse genetic engineering technology allows viruses to be scanned and vaccines to be developed in 3
to 4 weeks. But the licensing costs for patents and Intellectual Property Rights are blocking this technology's use. Vaccine makers are forced to use
old, slow technology where the virus is grown in chicken eggs, and batches are ruined with regularity. So production takes 6 months or more.
See ATSNN. Flu Vaccine Technology: Who’s Blocking its Use?
People with bird flu need to be put on ventilators. But purchasing ventilators was not a budget priority.
The USA has nowhere near enough ventilators for
Tamiflu is the anti-viral back-up treatment plan. But
doctors combating H5N1 on the front lines
say Tamiflu is 'useless' for avian flu
- and that's the last, less virulent form they're talking about.
A Vietnamese doctor with experience in treating avian flu says Tamiflu, the drug being stockpiled for treatment of avian flue is useless against
the virus. ...Dr. Nguyen Tuong Van of the Centre for Tropical Diseases in Hanoi has treated 41 victims of H5N1, following World Health Organization
guidelines and administering Tamiflu to her patients. She told the Sunday Times of London the medicine had no effect.
"We place no importance on using this drug on our patients," she said. "Tamiflu is really only meant for treating ordinary type A flu. It was
not designed to combat H5N1."
Also see: ATSNN Report: Tamiflu "Useless" Against H5N1 Bird Flu
Reddy said that from Roche’s experience with seasonal flu, the drug was known to be most effective when given within 48 hours of symptoms first
appearing. He declined to give any timeframe for administering the drug to treat bird flu, but noted the virus was more aggressive in nature.
Animal tests find Tamiflu effective if given early enough, drug maker says
Bird flu in Vietnam resisting Tamiflu
US Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld stands to make a fortune from Tamiflu.
ATS: Donald Rumsfeld Makes $5 Million Killing on Bird Flu Drug
Tamiflu was developed and patented in 1996 by a California biotech firm, Gilead Sciences Inc. ...In 1997, before he became US Secretary of Defense,
Donald H. Rumsfeld was named Chairman of the Board of Gilead Sciences, where he remained until early 2001 when he became Defense Secretary. Rumsfeld
had been on the board of Gilead since 1988 according to a January 3 1997 company press release.
An as-yet-unconfirmed report is that Rumsfeld while Secretary of Defense also
purchased an additional stock in his former company, Gilead Sciences, worth $18 million, making him one of its largest if not the largest stock owners
today. ...President Bush has ordered the US Government to buy $2 billion worth of Gilead Science’s Tamiflu.
Ordinary Americans will have access to Tamiflu in emergency porta-clinics, courtesy of your tax dollars and Halliburton's KBR-contract, the same
bunch who handled Katrina construction and brought you gas in Iraq at $5 per gallon. Halliburton is US Vice President Dick Cheney's baby.
See ATSNN. US Medical Care for H5N1 Bird Flu: Your Options
US Health and Human Services poobah Mike Leavitt is touring the states and giving everyone a heads-up about the coming pandemics. If it's not H5N1
bird flu, it will be something else. Guaranteed. Predictably, the federal plan focuses on "Personal Responsibility" in health.
..."any community that fails to prepare - with the
expectation that the federal government can offer a lifeline - will be tragically wrong." To assist local efforts, HHS is holding planning
summits in all 50 states and providing checklists to local and state governments, businesses, schools, home health care providers, faith-based and
community organizations and individuals and families.
Bush had Congress put aside $350 million for "pandemic flu preparedness" - nowhere near enough. But the war in Iraq is sucking up trillions and
trillions of dollars. There's not much left for the home front.
Leavitt announced North Carolina will get $2.5 million of $350 million approved by Congress for pandemic flu preparedness.
But N.C. Gov. Mike Easley ...said, "That will not cut it."
Preventing killer epidemics is not the primary goal here apparently. Nations today, including the USA, are supporting huge populations of aging and
disabled people. Preventing fatal diseases
increases healthcare costs:
Elimination of fatal diseases ...increases healthcare costs. ...In countries with low mortality, elimination of fatal diseases by successful
prevention increases healthcare spending because of the medical expenses during added life years.
* In countries with low mortality prevention of fatal diseases adds life years predominantly to old age, when disabling conditions are
* If fatal diseases are eliminated, the medical costs of life extension at old age will generally be higher than the costs prevented.
Unfortunately, H5N1 bird flu is different from most common flus. It targets the young - including adolescents and young adults. So it looks like the
plan will backfire.
Early on, the H5N1 bird flu epidemic could have been prevented by culling (killing) poultry infected with low path MPAIs. But that would have cut into
corporate profits. And it's too late now to take that route. The North American strategy is to wait until the pandemic hits, then use live vaccines.
Using live vaccine in poultry is extremely dangerous but much, much cheaper than using killed vaccines. Live vaccines can recombine with other viruses
and make something worse.
...scientists may turn toward a hitherto unthinkable
option: a live influenza vaccine for poultry. ...Such vaccines have long been considered too risky in poultry. "Because these viruses are so
unstable, the concern was that they could recombine with some other virus that's there and make something worse," he said.
Live vaccines ...require less antigen (active ingredient) than killed vaccine. A live vaccine may contain too few copies of the weakened virus to
trigger an immediate immune response, but once inside the host, the virus replicates to the point where the immune system detects and responds to it.
A killed virus must be injected in larger doses, because it doesn't multiply inside the recipient.
...live viruses don't have to be injected into each bird individually; they can be put into drinking water or sprayed into the air in a chicken coop.
That way, hundreds or thousands of birds can be immunized quickly. Killed viruses, by contrast, must be injected, because there's no other way to
administer them that will bring them into contact with the immune system.
The Bush administration will keep an eye on migratory birds and test 100,000 to 150,000 bird and water samples. China is launching an RFID tracking
system to monitor bird flu.
Because Alaska is at the crossroads of bird migration flyways, scientists believe the strain of highly pathogenic H5N1 currently affecting
Southeast Asia would most likely arrive there if it spread to North America via migratory birds. Thus, the plan recommends a prioritized sampling
system with emphasis in Alaska, elsewhere in the Pacific Flyway and the Pacific islands, followed by the Central, Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways.
In 2006, USDA and its cooperators plan to collect between
75,000 to 100,000 samples from live and dead wild birds. They also plan to collect 50,000 samples of water or feces from high-risk waterfowl habitats
across the United States.
China to monitor bird flu with RFID. An RFID tracking system
designed to slow the spread of avian flu will be tested this month by China’s poultry industry... The technology, developed by Canadian company
Smart-tek Communications, was unveiled to government, academic and industry experts at a conference in Beijing last week.
The RTAC-PM ('RFID Tracking Alert Containment and Poultry Monitoring) system was designed for the livestock - and specifically poultry - industry to
help governments monitor poultry movement. ...“At its core, the RTAC-PM System uses the Internet to report detailed, real-time information about
events in the poultry supply-chain to a central monitoring station," said Law.
It looks like the deadly 1918 flu was introduced into American soldiers and convicts via mass vaccinations. When US soldiers went to the front, they
infected enemy troops and won WWI. Conveniently, infected troops also decimated the USA's unwanted immigrant population when they came home.
The influenza epidemic of 1918... may have
begun in the United States as an epidemic that was confined largely to military bases and prisons. ...When American troops took the virus to
Europe during World War I, it quickly became established in Europe and spread to Russia, North Africa, India, China, Japan, the Philippines, Brazil,
and New Zealand.
It also looks like this flu has been spreading, mutating and recombining for the last century - with a lot of help from corporate industry.
According to University of Ottawa flu virologist Earl Brown,
lethal bird flu is entirely man-made, first evolving in
commercially produced poultry in Italy in 1878. The highly pathogenic H5N1 is descended from a strain that first appeared in Scotland in 1959.
People have been living with backyard flocks of poultry since the dawn of civilization. But it wasn't until poultry production became modernized and
birds were raised in much larger numbers and concentrations that a virulent bird flu evolved. Somehow, the virus that arose in Scotland found its way
to China, where, as H5N1, it has been raging for more than a decade.
Purposefully unleashing a bioweapon of such power would have been heartless, cruel and callous. But that wouldn't have stopped the kind of men who
make such plans. Even if they had understood the implications of what they were doing.
Nature - and a few ill-advised experiments - did the rest.
The main goals were and are to profit - to control the economy, manipulate people and play everything as a business opportunity. Recent cover-ups have
been unusually draconian, even for these guys. But in order for international corporate industries to profiteer, and profit from the death, disaster,
and devastation of the bird flu pandemic, the following criteria must be met:
1) The pandemic must materialize unhindered, and
2) Take its course, while
3) Critical scientific information remains privately owned as Intellectual Property for "trade" purposes, and protected under the 2002 Bioterrorism
This is a business strategy, at odds with humanitarian principles. And the real issue is about Open Source versus private Intellectual Property
Rights. People versus profits.
CDC locks up flu data
Amid growing concerns that avian influenza will develop into a deadly pandemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is under fire by some
in the scientific community for hoarding data crucial for vaccine development. The allegations come as CDC has issued new and controversial rules on
what data, documents and other information it will - and will not - share with the public. Open government advocates are critical of the CDC's
"Information Security" manual, the 34-page document that gives officials 19 categories to shield data from public scrutiny without obtaining a
Flu researchers slam US agency for hoarding data
Flu researchers slam US agency for hoarding
ATSNN: Flu Researchers Slam US for Hoarding Data
ATS: US Reluctant To Share Important Flu Samples
Scientists who are researching influenza say their work is being hindered by the U.S. Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC), which is withholding data on most of the flu strains that scientists sequence, Reuters reports.
More than 200 scientists employed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service say they have been directed to alter official findings to lessen protections
for plants and animals, a survey released Wednesday says.
More than half of the biologists and other researchers who responded to the survey said they knew of cases in which commercial interests, including
timber, grazing, development and energy companies, had applied political pressure to reverse scientific conclusions deemed harmful to their
"The pressure to alter scientific reports for political reasons has become pervasive at Fish and Wildlife offices around the country," said Lexi
Shultz of the Union of Concerned Scientists. ...A biologist in Alaska wrote in response to the survey:
"It is one thing for the department to dismiss our recommendations, it is quite another to
be forced (under veiled threat of removal) to say something that is counter to our best professional judgment."
The U.S. government is making it harder for scientists to speak to their global colleagues... Rep. Henry Waxman said he has a letter showing that the
Health and Human Services Department has imposed new limits on who may speak to the World Health Organization. ...Under the new policy, WHO must ask
HHS for permission to speak to scientists and must allow HHS to choose who will respond.
"This policy is unprecedented. For the first time political appointees will routinely be able to keep the top experts in their field from responding
to WHO requests for guidance on international health issues,... This is a raw attempt to exert political control over scientists and scientific
evidence in the area of international health," Waxman wrote.
"Under the new policy the administration will be
able to refuse to provide any experts whenever it wishes to stall international progress on controversial topics."
WHO WILL PROFIT?
The CDC has partnerships with the pharmaceutical industry; research is funded partly from tax coffers and partly by private companies. While the
National Institutes of Health mandates Open Access publication of any research that receives any public funding, the CDC obviously does not. The CDC
claims that it cannot keep up with information requests, but David Webster, president of Webster Consulting Group Inc., a health-industry consulting
firm, says that the CDC may be concerned that sharing data might negatively affect its industry partners.
Concern grows over secrecy at CDC
Nature quoted Michael Deem, a scientist at Rice University, as saying: "Many in the influenza field are displeased with the CDC's practice of
refusing to deposit sequences of most of the strains that they sequence." ...Nature's own analyses found that the CDC deposited less than a tenth of
the 15,000 influenza A sequences in the gene database Genbank and the influenza sequence database at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. By
comparison, a consortium led by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases deposited more than 2,800 sequences this year alone.
One concern the CDC may have about sharing data is how it would affect any partnership it might have with vaccine manufacturers, said David Webster,
president of Webster Consulting Group Inc., a health-industry consulting firm.
The CDC might be concerned that those manufacturers might not be able to recoup their investment if the information is widely available.
The decision was made early on not
to eradicate mild disease, or to prevent its spread and mutation. Instead, the developing pharmaceutical
industry focused on treating secondary symptoms. Today, the drug industry is the largest and most profitable industry in the world, surpassing even
the oil industry.
Also see: ATS: Rats, flies likely to spread avian influenza
CBC: AVIAN FLU
[edit on 27-3-2006 by Thomas Crowne]
[edit on 27-3-2006 by Thomas Crowne]