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Originally posted by merka
If my googles skills are accurate, the Empire State Building was built in 1 year and 45 days (410 days).
It has 10 million bricks in it. That means they had to put down 24,390 bricks per day, 7 days a week, for 410 days.
Sounds amazing, doesnt it? Especially if you count the fact it also has an additional 60,000 tonnes of steel and 200,000 cubic feet of limestone and granite that had to be put into place at the same time as those bricks. This was all done by a mere 3000 workers, pathetic by any measure in the ancient times.
Point is, numbers can make anything look magical. But it doesnt tell the whole story.
It has 10 million bricks in it.
60,000 tonnes of steel
200,000 cubic feet of limestone
Now just recently I was contacted by the construction firm DMJM -- the initials stand for Daniel, Mann, Johnson & Mendenhall -- it's one of the largest construction firms, they're working right now on the Pentagon. And one of the senior vice presidents decided to take on for a formal address for fellow engineers, a program management study of the Great Pyramid. So these are not guys lifting boilers in Manhattan, these are senior civil engineers with one of the largest construction corporations in the United States. And I'm sure they'd be happy to go on record with their study which looked at what they call critical path analysis. What do you need to get the job done? What tools did they have? And they contacted me and other Egyptologists and we gave them some references. Here's what we know about their tools, the inclined plane, the lever and so on. And without any secret sophistication or hidden technology, just basically what archaeologists say, this is what these folks had. DIM JIM came up with 5,000, 4 to 5,000 men could build the Great Pyramid within a 20 to 40 year period. And they have very specific calculations on every single aspect, from the gravel, for the ramps, to baking the bread. So I throw that out there, not because that's gospel truth, but because reasoned construction engineers, who plan great projects like bridges and buildings today and earthworks and so on, look at the Great Pyramid and don't opt out for lost civilizations, extraterrestrials, or hidden technologies.
Originally posted by Odium
The Pyramids of Giza: Could they have been made?
The idea that it is a burial chamber, comes from four main pieces of evidence:
Now to truly argued against it, you need to examine the main pieces of evidence.
- The legends told to and reported by Herodotus who visited the pyramids in 443 BC
- The funerary complex near the Great Pyramid with inscriptions citing Cheops/Khufu as the reigning pharaoh
- In the pyramid itself, on a granite slab above the ceiling of the main chamber, some small, red ochre paint marks that have a slight resemblance to a hieroglyphic symbol for the name of Khufu
- Writing outside the pyramids, describing how and when it was built.
Now, the Pyramids are claimed to contain 2,300,000 limestone and granite blocks - which is actually more than contained in the entire Churches in the United Kingdom, during the 1400’s to 1800’s. On a mineral scale, limestone is 4 to 5 and granite is 5 to 6. Now, housed in the Cairo Museum the only example of saws that were found dating from the 4th Dynasty are copper and bronze, both which come between 3.5 to 4 on this scale. 
- Can’t be taken as fact, as it is a story.
- Could have been built after.
- Claimed to be faked.
- Seems to describe repair work, not building.
So, when looking at the first part the ability to cut and shape the blocks so perfectly is heavily suspect with the technology that they are described to have been using - next, you have the blocks themselves. Many of these blocks are meant to weigh on average 2.6tons, with the heaviest being estimated at over 15tons. Now, to complete the project in ten years Civil Engineering magazine [June 1999.] estimated that the average workforce was 13,2000 with a peak workforce of 40,000. Their calculations suggest that to complete it in ten years, with that many people you would have to sustain a rate of 180 blocks per-hour or three blocks every 60-seconds.
Now, think of that for a moment: to construct in ten-years, it would take a rate of 3blocks per-minute to be built in that time. An amazing feat, when many of the blocks were carved in Aswan, 600miles to the south. The problem with the Civil Engineering magazine, what they did not factor in was the time it would take to design, plan, survey, level a 13-acre site and more importantly, they didn’t factor in the building of other pyramids, temples, houses, gathering of food, etc. All of which would add considerable to their ten year estimate. When compared against the time span that Khufu reigned [2589 BC to 2566 BC.] the ability for such a project to be under-taken is highly suspect. However, it is not impossible.
How were the blocks moved? It is known, that the most likely source of the material was gathered from Aswan and the surrounding region - transporting them almost 600miles, in some cases. Now, depending on which theory you ascribe to the ability to move them is different. From, rolling them on wooden slates, to using kites to pull them and so on and so fourth. I actually ascribe to a hybrid theory:
If you take the theories of Mark Lehner and Mory Gharib, and combine them you have the ability to move the blocks “quickly”. Mark Lehner, put forward the theory that there was a road that was lubricated [with water or milk] and then pulled along these - sliding. Mory Gharib, a Caltech aeronautics professor put forward the idea that they could have been moved using “kites” and in June 2001, they were able to raise a 3000kg obelisk into position in 25seconds in just 22mph winds. It is fully possible, that these were added together. Thus much of the weight of the blocks, was removed from the labour force and they just helped to pull the rest of the weight. The largest blocks being transported fully by land, but the smaller being transported by ships with these kites helping to lift them.
Now, the problem of the ramp? To build a ramp to the top of the Pyramid would in fact take more material than the Pyramid themselves - however, excavation to the South of the Pyramids found the remains of a ramp. However, it wasn’t solid - two walls, filled with sand a material they had in abundance. The walls were used to help compact the sand so that they could build the pyramids.
When coupled with recent studies, done by Gilles Dormion and Jean Patrice Goidin they have found that between 10 to 15% of the Pyramid, is actually filled with sand, rubber, gypsum and so on and so fourth - the smoother blocks being on the outside and this can be seen on the pyramids themselves. Now that the case-stones have been removed [hundreds of years ago], the ones below them are not as smooth as people would suspect and this would remove the time they needed to work on them.
It is possible, that Khufu had them built - it has been displayed, through various theorists that it is fully possible to have built the pyramids in such a time frame. However, it would be hard-work - the evidence is there and clear that it could be completed but would be an amazing feat or engineering that is something even now we can’t compete with.
What was it used for?
Who knows? I tend to believe it was used for another purpose, not as a burial chamber but a temple. Will we ever find out? I hope so for my own sanity.
Originally posted by dgtempe
I saw the show on Discovery that said that it would have taken over the span of 20 years, 1 of those slabs had to be laid out with perfect presicion every 1.5 minutes.
There;s no way on earth.
A Great Pyramid feasibility study relating to the quarrying of the stone was performed in 1978 by Technical Director Merle Booker of the Indiana Limestone Institute of America. Consisting of 33 quarries, the Institute is considered by many architects to be one of the world’s leading authorities on lime stone. Using modern equipment, the study concludes:
“Utilizing the entire Indiana Limestone industry’s facilities as they now stand [for 33 quarries], and figuring on tripling present average
production, it would take approximately 27 years to quarry, fabricate and ship the total requirements.”
Mr. Booker points out the time study assumes sufficient quantities of railroad cars would be available without delay or downtime during this 27 year period and does not factor in the increasing costs of completing the work.
What are the mechanics of how they laid the bricks? Near the higher points I would also expect it to be more time consuming
Originally posted by Prot0n
Seeing as how this was a planned construction, isn't it possible that we can try and give our ancestor's credit to have actually gotten the material's, or most of them before actual construction took place? You know... give the guy's SOME credit and benefit of the doubt!
"...Whereas I am just a neophyte, hoping not to miss the metal spike with my sledgehammer. The fact that I'm doing this in front of dozens of seasoned miners doesn't help -- nor does the camera. But it's surprisingly easy to cut these stones cleanly if you have the right tools and technique."
"Pulling the stones, too, is not too hard once you have people, water, a sled, and ropes. I imagine that back in ancient times the "Overseer of the Worksman Who Dragged the Stones" would have been an expert at leveraging and pulling these stones across miles of desert.
"While it's fun to speculate that people may have used sound waves and magnetic alignments to levitate or split the stones, it's nice to know that elbow grease and ingenuity can get the job done, too...