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Missile and astronautics delivery technology
MISSILES AND SPACE VEHICLES
Re-entry vehicle attack idling speed activity goal guidance plan research
Chen eastern coastal region of China Yu Menglun Xin Wanqing Li Junhui
(Beijing astronavigation systems engineering design department, Beijing,100,076)
Once celebrated Hunan
(Beijing special mechanical and electrical research institute, Beijing, 100,076)
The abstract has studied the re-entry vehicle attack marine idling speed activity goal guidance plan. First introduced the goal initial
reconnaissance positioning system; Then the detection unit as well as the aerological ascent system which may use to the re-entry vehicle attack goal
has carried on the analysis; Finally has conducted the research to the guidance rule of re-entry vehicle that enter a trajectory of dives arc. Most
greatly escapes in view of the goal the scope, proposed the high low altitude combined guidance plan, the simulation result indicated the plan is
Key word re-entry vehicle, combined guidance, evasion.
The re-entry vehicle attack idling speed activity goal is a brand-new research direction, because the re-entry vehicle has the characteristic
which other attack methods does not have, mainly manifests in following several aspects:
A) the flight vehicle firing distance is far, may carry on the attack in the greater depth scope to the goal;
B) The reentry speed of flight vehicle is very fast, may use reentry maneuverability and reentry electric-disturbs, so the ability of breaking defence
is very strong.
C) the re-entry vehicle attack might is big, and portable many kinds of forms attack installment;
D) the re-entry vehicle in has the active detection and end in the homing ability situation, similarly may achieve the quite high precision.
Therefore, the re-entry vehicle attack idling speed goal is one extremely effective attack method, but, its guidance plan and the attack fixed target
guidance plan has differently. This article by the marine ships took the simulated strike object, from the reconnaissance positioning system, the
detection unit and the guiding system and the guidance rule and so on several aspects elaborates the re-entry vehicle attack marine idling speed goal
2 target reconnaissance positioning system
When research re-entry vehicle attack marine idling speed goal guidance plan, first must consider how to goal implementation precise reconnaissance
and localization, this is attacks the active goal the prerequisite.
At present, carries on the reconnaissance localization to the seaborne target the main method to include: Sea surveillance satellite, electronic
reconnaissance satellite, imagery reconnaissance satellite, over-the-horizon radar as well as nobody reconnaissance aircraft and so on. Because uses
the sole reconnaissance means not to be able to satisfy the combat to request, therefore must above the comprehensive utilization each reconnaissance
means, achieve real-time, accurately carries on the monitor and the localization to the goal.
Surveys the method based on above reconnaissance positioning system like chart1 to show.
Through the sea surveillance satellite system and by the electronic reconnaissance, the imagery reconnaissance satellite constitution other
reconnaissance satellite systems, may complete to the goal reconnaissance survey, the recognition and the localization. Although satellite
reconnaissance system pointing accuracy higher, but satellite system timeliness is also worse, is unable to meet the wartime needs, therefore may use
in usually to monitor. When enters the operational condition, may the target position information which monitors the satellite system through the
communications satellite bequeath the over-the-horizon radar system, carries on the all-weather track monitor by it to the goal, real-time recording
goal movement information. Because the over-the-horizon radar pointing accuracy is worse, therefore in prepared for action in front of the flight
vehicle still to need and so on other methods produces the goal by the satellite system or nobody reconnaissance aircraft the exact location,
unceasingly revised the over-the-horizon radar to bequeath the combat operation center the target information. This time has carried on initial Zhu
Yuan in the launch unit flight vehicle binding, after the final target location up-dating information arrives the control center, bequeaths the launch
unit immediately, adjusts the various Yuan with the recent information, and launch flight vehicle.
3 homing detection units and aerological ascent system
3.1 end homing detection units
With attacks the ground fixed target to be different, with the re-entry vehicle attack goal and must guarantee the attack precision, on the flight
vehicle must have own acquisition system, namely end the homing detection unit, and carries on re-entry the homing guidance to the flight vehicle.
End the homing detection unit mainly uses in air-to-air missile and the ground-to-air missile, but has not applied in the re-entry vehicle, but its
function is same, namely after the flight vehicle atmospheric reentry, carries on to the goal researches and the localization, and defers to the
guidance rule which prearranges to the trajectory to carry on the revision, until hit goal.
Below unifies some host passive compound radar seeker to produce one kind of re-entry guidance plan.
After the flight vehicle atmospheric reentry arrives some altitude, active radar opening machine, carries on the search, the interception, the
recognition and the track to the goal, produces guidance intelligence and so on line of sight angle, line of sight angular speed, distance, then
active radar closing machine, the flight vehicle by air flap provides the controlling force, makes the evasion according to the guidance rule; When
the flight vehicle continues flies to some one highly, the detection unit by the passive form to the goal carries on the search, and continuously
produces the guidance intelligence, until hits the goal.
The ending guided system of re-entry vehicle must be more complex than the conventional detection unit,
Needs to solve many essential technical questions,
Mainly includes following several aspects:
A) the re-entry vehicle high speed has, the high temperature greatly dynamic re-entry environment, the detection unit must be able under this
environment the normal work;
B) the detection unit range coverage must satisfy the re-entry vehicle guidance plan request;
C) the detection unit must have the target identification ability, therefore needs to develop the corresponding target identification technology;
D) must solve the detection unit to pass through the plasma black bonds when the signal loss question;
E) The detection unit must have the stronger anti-disturb ability.
Whether does the detection unit performance index satisfy the guidance request is the re-entry vehicle attack goal key and the prerequisite.
3.2 aerological ascents system
As a result of each kind of factor influence, the re-entry vehicle re-entry the maneuver capability is limited. When the goal escapes the region
surpasses the flight vehicle reentry the mobile scope, only depends on the low altitude reentry maneuverability to be unable to guarantee the hit
goal, in this kind of situation, may use the upper air trajectory to amend a plan, namely increases the high aerial guidance section, revises the
partial ballistic deflection with the high, after causes the trajectory which re-entry needs to repair measures in the flight vehicle maneuver
Must realize the re-entry vehicle upper air mobile front, must have in to be mobile obtains the new target position information. One kind of plan is
obtains the revision directive in the flight vehicle flight center-section through the ground station; Another kind of plan is flight vehicle oneself
carries the upper air radar-probing system, to this obtains the new target position information.
The preceding kind of plan is the command guidance, the principle simple, but the technical realization difficulty is bigger; The latter kind of plan
although quite is complex in the technology, after but actually may achieve the launch no matter. When the flight vehicle flight to arc-dive some
altitude, the posture controls the engine to carry on to the flight vehicle adjusts the posture, causes the upper air radar antenna to aim at the goal
as far as possible, then radar opening machine, this time the posture controls the system maintenance flight vehicle posture the stability, after the
radar antenna scanning, the recognition and the data accumulated, produces then target position information, hereafter radar closing machine, the
flight vehicle according to the guidance procedure which prearranged adjusts the posture, then the high ignition, carried on the revision to the upper
air trajectory. Certainly, realizes this kind of guidance plan to have very many difficulties, besides guidance plan itself complexity, also to set
the higher specification as the hardware foundation upper air radar-probing system.
4 high low altitudes combined guidance plan
4.1 low-altitude maneuver abilities□□
After the re-entry vehicle low-altitude maneuver ability refers to the maximum maneuvering distance which is the flight vehicle atmospheric reentry
can achieve, it many kinds of factors influence. For example, the supposition to the re-entry vehicle below proposed restrains the condition:
A) falls to the ground the rate limitation in 2 Ma - 3 Ma;
B) falls to the ground the time path angle to approach vertically;
C) the most high attack angle and the biggest overload has the limit.
Then the re-entry vehicle low-altitude maneuver ability is decided to above restrains the condition, when design re-entry guidance law must consider
these restraint conditions, usually use have the terminal restraint condition the most superior guidance law[ 1,2 ], and carries on the limit to the
angle of attack and the overload, but also must carry on decelerates the control, it dives in plane model re-entry trajectory like chart2 to show
This ballistic curve is uses some re-entry vehicle the trajectory and the air operated parameter carries on the simulation to obtain. Produces is
dives in the plane trajectory, the height of re-entry calculates from 70 km, the guidance law uses is the literature[ 1 ]the center most superior
re-entry guidance law. Among them, A is an aiming point, also is the ballistic trajectory point of descent; C launches for the flight vehicle when the
goal initial point; B and D respectively be dives in the plane the goal most greatly escapes to after and to front the spot. Because decelerates the
control and the overload limit, ballistic trajectory point of descent choice in goal initial spot, because if chooses in C, then in attacks B time not
enough horizontal flight to decelerate the section, is unable to satisfy the falling speed the request. Therefore the ballistic trajectory point of
descent must choose in A, AD is the flight vehicle low altitude maximum maneuvering distance, but BD is the attack scope.
The AB section showed in chart 2 is for guarantee attacks B and D time the distance which falls to the ground the speed to be able to answer the
purpose reserves, in the simulation takes AB=25km, its value decides along with the concrete question. In the chart BC section and the CD section in
dive in the plane for the goal most greatly to escape the radius, if the goal escapes the radius to be very big, then possibly is unable to guarantee
attacks B and D trajectory can satisfy the falling speed request, namely the re-entry vehicle attack radius is limited. The simulation indicated that,
this re-entry vehicle biggest attack radius is 20 km, namely BC=CD=20km, corresponds flight vehicle low altitude most greatly maneuvering distance
4.2 high low altitudes combined guidance plan
In order to expand the attack scope, may increase the upper air to be mobile. Under produces one kind to be simple provides the controlling force with
the solid propellant engine the upper air guidance plan.
Front uses aerological ascent system which states, produces the target position information after it, the flight vehicle starts to adjust the posture,
adjusts the ordinate axis with the velocity vector vertical direction, then the high ignition, the realization dives in the plane the upper air
trajectory is mobile to front and to after, to the front mobile time ordinate axis and the velocity vector included angle is 90°, to after when
is-90°. This plan control mode quite is simple front, the flight vehicle in dives in the plane to be possible to carry on to and latter approaches
mobile, fully has used the upper air energy, but must solve the question is:
How does a) use the flight vehicle to control the upper air maneuvering distance in upper air around after the maneuver capability (to refer to upper
air mobile inertia re-entry ballistic impact to be apart from not mobile ballistic trajectory point of descent distance), after guarantees re-entry
the goal in the flight vehicle low-altitude maneuver scope;
B) The solid propellant engine usually uses exhausts the closing machine way, how in exhausts Guan Ji under the condition to control the upper air
Under produces the concrete guidance plan and the conclusion, the inferential reasoning process omits. This plan uses the switch type control,
satisfies the low altitude re-entry maneuver capability to take the target, infers upper air maneuver capability which needs, as well as instruction
cut position, thus has solved the above two problems well, its principle like chart 3 shows
Chart3 center C still for the goal initial point spot, R was the goal most greatly escapes the radius, namely when flight vehicle hit goal before the
target location and the launch binds goal initial point deviation, after also is the flight vehicle uses the attack region radius which high
low-altitude maneuver needs to achieve. AB still for reserved distance. In this plan aiming point (namely non- mobile ballistic trajectory point of
descent) no longer chooses in A, but is in E, AE length for the flight vehicle to the after upper air maneuvering distance, namely the flight vehicle
carries on the upper air mobile ballistic trajectory point of descent to after in A, EF is the flight vehicle to the front upper air maneuvering
distance, AF namely for the flight vehicle around sum of to the upper air maneuvering distance (maneuvering distance by point of descent computation).
This plan characteristic is has an instruction cut to selectG, namely after the goal is located G when, the flight vehicle makes the upper air to
after to be mobile, its ballistic trajectory can fall on A; But when the goal is located G in front of when, the flight vehicle makes the upper air to
front to be mobile, this time the ballistic trajectory point of descent can in point F
After the inferential reasoning may obtain, when satisfies
When, low altitude needs the maximum maneuvering distance is smallest, is
Below from this draws the conclusion:
A) the switch controls the instruction cut selects G is the goal initial point selects C;
After b) must cause the maneuvering distance which re-entry the flight vehicle needs to be smallest, only must choose the high around sum of to the
maneuvering distance to be equal to the goal most greatly escapes radius R then.
Take the above flight vehicle as the example, like chart2 shows, the flight vehicle low altitude maximum maneuvering distance is
In the formular-chart2 center low-altitude maneuver biggest attack radius or CD.
Therefore by the type (2), (3) may know, after increased the upper air to be mobile and to use the switch type guidance plan, might expand the flight
vehicle attack region radius a time, namely
Under carries on the high low altitude combined guidance simulation to the re-entry vehicle, and most greatly escapes the goal the radius to expand a
time, namely R=40 km, after uses the high low altitude combined guidance to dive in plane trajectory like chart 4 to show. Because C cuts the spot, in
the simulation when attacks point C in high altitude to use maneuverability
This upper air guidance plan may attack the region radius to expand a time, and enables the high low altitude energy to achieve the rational
distribution, it uses has an instruction cut switch control, therefore the high must work; Certainly, but also may use has two instructions cuts
switch control, namely when the goal is located two cuts between high not to work, such flight vehicle attack region radius also may increase, after
its cut position, was high the energy or the maneuver capability in which high altitude air needed, as well as the expanded attack region radius
still may use the above method to infer
Chart4 dives the plane high low altitude combined guidance trajectory
5 concluding remark
The re-entry vehicle attack idling speed activity goal most important condition is on the goal initial reconnaissance positioning system and the
flight vehicle acquisition system, they are guide the plan the important constituent, is designs the guidance plan the hardware foundation. Attacks
the region in view of the re-entry vehicle the limit as well as the goal possibly appears in a big way escapes the radius, proposed high low altitude
combined guidance plan, this plan is really convenient and feasible, effectively increased the attack scope, but still had to conduct the thorough
research to the below essential technical question:
A) guided the upper air energy which needed to be bigger, increased the flight vehicle quality, whether could satisfy the overall request;
Whether b) does the upper air posture control the system to answer the purpose;
Whether c) does the upper air guidance precision satisfy re-entry the terminal guidance request;
D) the high works when easily was discovered that, needs the effective defense penetration measure.
1 Zhao Hanyuan Flight vehicle re-entry dynamics and guidance Changsha: National University of Defense Technology publishing house, 1997.
2 Kim M, Grider K V. Terminal guidance for impact attitude angle constrained flight trajectories. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic System
,1973, AES-9 (6): 852 ~ 859
Chen HaidongYu MenglunXin WanqingLi Junhui
(Beijing Institute of Astronautical Systems Engineering, Beijing, 100076)
(Beijing Institute of Special Mechanical and Electronic Devices, Beijing,100076)
Abstract In this paper, the guidance scheme of reentry vehicles attacking slowly moving targets on the sea is studied. First, initial reconnaissance
and location systems for targets are introduced; then, the target seeker and high altitude detector which can be used on reentry vehicles to attack
the moving target are analyzed; finally, a guidance law in downward phase of reentry vehicles is studied. By considering the largest escape range of
the target, a compound guidance scheme in highlow altitude is presented. The trajectory simulation sh
ows the feasibility of this scheme.
Key Words Reentry vehicle, Compound guidance, Flight maneuver
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[edit on 3-2-2006 by emile]