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The Cartesian plane, named after the mathematician Rene Descartes (1596 - 1650), is a plane with a rectangular coordinate system that associates each point in the plane with a pair of numbers.
In 1638, La Geometrie was published. This work was responsible for making Descartes famous in mathematics history, because it was the invention of analytical geometry. Analytical geometry is basically applying algebra to geometry. Although this had been done before by other mathematicians earlier in the history of mathematics, Descartes introduced this theory about determining a point in a plane by pairs of real numbers (ordered pairs). This is known as the Cartesian Plane.