Originally posted by mattison0922
Thanks for the link. Did you happen to notice this statement a couple of paragraphs down from the one you posted:
Plausible explanations for the extraordinary DNA-repair capability of D. radiodurans remain elusive in the early analyses of DNA repair genes.
Sounds kind of like these scientists are scratching their heads with this one.
However, I DO also know that the spores of many species, including the species I am currently studying, Phytophthora infestans, are stored and remain viable in a state of dessication. However, again, I am talking about spores, not bacterial resting structures, and while there are likely to be similarities, there are also likely to be differences.
These are all valid points. Perhaps you should consider getting info from... a more primary source.
Originally posted by soficrowByrd - Inconsistencies and apparent contradictions in the language used to describe "electromagnetism in biological systems" does not result from a lack of scientific rigor. There are several reasons why the language is inconsistent: the study spans several disciplines, and each discipline has its own vocabulary;
also, studying and describing the biological effects of electromagnetism - or anything related to electropollution - is "discouraged" in our economy.
More to the point, research on electromagnetism in biological systems is fraught with career-killing landmines, and governed by unwritten economic-political policies.
...Newly created sources of electromagnetic fields and radiation are a significant part of our developed world, and industry - and create what is called "electropollution" or "electrosmog." So describing exactly what the effects of electromagnetic pollution are on biological systems is threatening to the economy.
..This state of affairs has created numerous conflicts of interest in the scientific-military-industrial complex. In consequence, scientists have difficulty finding the funds to research electromagnetism in biological systems. Publishing negative results publicly is verboten, and guaranteed to extinguish even the most established star.
Interestingly, many chemical reactions seen in biology are "forbidden" according to the laws of quantum mechanics. The key to understanding these 'forbidden chemical reactions' - and protein folding, molecular formation, and the like in non-living systems - lies in unravelling the "mystery" of how electromagnetism works in biological systems at the atomic level.
NOTE: I am not saying that all mutation results directly from electropollution. I am saying that electropollution has become a critical component in the complex system that is our ecosphere, and has indirect effects on biological systems.
"Forty-one thousand (41,000) Americans died of cancer in 1900; a death rate of approximately 64 per 100,000 Americans. The 1990 death rate per 100,000 is nearly three times the 1900 figure. In 1994, over one million two hundred fifty thousand (1,250,000) Americans will be diagnosed with cancer and predictions are that five hundred forty-seven thousand (547,000) Americans will die from this plague in 1995 (a 1500 person per day average)."
Original source: The American Cancer Society, Cancer Statistics
Also see text and links at: 1925 Cancer Data Showing The Link To Toxic Tobacco Smoke
Mortality from Cancer in the U.S.
year --- deaths/ 100,000
Source: Vital Statistics of the United States vol.II 1967-1992
...in 1900 cancer was practically unheard of in this country. By 1950, there were about 150 cases of cancer per 100,000 population. In 1971, Nixon introduced the War on Cancer, opening the floodgates of massive research funding backed by the government. This situation escalated until by the 1980s, over $50 billion per year was being spent to "find the cure." And yet we have the plain data in the chart above. What is going on?
Source: To the Cancer Patient
About 156 people an hour will learn they have cancer this year, according to 2004 data from the American Cancer Society.
A 1 percent decline in cancer death rates per year (since 1999) has been accredited to earlier detection, prevention efforts and better treatments; however, cancer still remains a recurrent disease among Americans.
...The majority of diseases (most cancers, heart disease) are determined by a combination of genes and environmental factors.
Source: Future changes in diagnostics, treatment and the NHS: Challenges for the health insurance market place.
The majority of diseases involve both genetics and the environment.
Most diseases are related in some way to our genes. The information contained in our genes is so critical that simple changes can lead to a severe inherited disease, make us more inclined to develop a chronic disease, or make us more vulnerable to an infectious disease.
Source: Genetics: GlaxoSmithKline
Scientists now know that the environment has a significant impact on our health.
Source: Chronic Disease and the Environment. See links for cancer and birth defects here.
CDC: Human Diseases Result from Gene-Environment Interaction
Environmental degradation leads to disease. Children are uniquely vulnerable to environmental toxicants due to greater relative exposure, less developed metabolism, and more cell production, growth, and change. The environmental insults of childhood may manifest themselves over a lifetime of growth to adulthood and senescence. In addition to physiologic vulnerabilities, children may have great social vulnerabilities as well. Poverty, malnutrition, and environmental injustice are our collective responsibility. We must develop policies to create safety, opportunity, and sustainability and we must carry into the next century a child-focused vision and value system.
...emerging science in this field indicates that asthma causation may be linked to the fetal and newborn environment during development of the immune system. This preliminary information provides an exciting potential approach to prevention and may indicate that current interventions are applied too late. ...There is growing scientific evidence to suggest that humans have introduced into the environment a range of organic chemicals that adversely effect humans and wildlife by disrupting endocrine system function. ...Since 1960, the death rate from cancer in children has plummeted 62% and cure rates have risen to over 80%, making child cancer the most curable chronic disease. There has been an avalanche of fundamental findings at the molecular level on how cancer develops and grows, and this knowledge may soon lead to greater abilities to prevent and control cancer. Now is a time to "stay the course" and to turn this hard-won knowledge into effective interventions for our children. Now also is the time to discover and prevent childhood exposure to environmental toxicants that will lead to cancer in adulthood. ...Research is needed to better characterize the potential neurological toxicity of the environmental chemicals to which children are frequently exposed. Both acute and delayed consequences of these exposures need to be assessed.
Source: Children's Environmental Health: Research, Practice, Prevention and Policy, 1997.
Some infectious diseases have been known to play a role in cancer in animals since the beginning of the 20th century. But only recently has infection with certain viruses, bacteria, and parasites been recognized as a risk factor for several types of cancer in humans.
Source: American Cancer Society: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Sequencing and analyzing the human genome is generating genetic information that must be linked with information about nutrition and metabolism, lifestyle behaviors, diseases and medications, and microbial, chemical, and physical exposures. Genetics must be included in protocols for health promotion and disease prevention research (e.g., host–pathogen interactions, risk factors for chronic diseases, and drug or vaccine development). Using the field of toxicogenomics as an example, risk assessment and risk management must move beyond consideration of one chemical, one environmental medium (air, water, soil, food), and one health effect (cancer, birth defect) at a time. This will require that multiple molecular signatures and biomarkers be integrated with a comprehensive public health view. It is important to take advantage of the fact that there are multiple sources for the same agent, multiple media/pathways of exposure, multiple risks/effects of the same agent, and multiple agents causing the same effects in order to understand the status and trends of disease, formulate ecological models of health, and take into consideration social, cultural, and environmental justice. This is a golden age for the public health sciences. But the best way to reap the benefits of all the developments and advances in genetics and genomics is to bring this information together with other crucial non-genetic variables. One framework for pulling this all together comes from regulatory decision-making that begins with hazard identification, then moves to risk characterization, and finally focuses on risk reduction. Currently, attention is focused on identifying genetic variations and their accompanying disease susceptibilities.
Implications of Genomics for Public Health: Workshop Summary (2005)
Seventeen out of every 20 cancer victims shouldn't have cancer, they have been murdered by the callous indifference of the people with power.
Dr. Vernon Coleman, F.R.S.M., Sunday Independent, November 1987.
Aflatoxin: a potent carcinogen from the fungus Aspergillus; can be produced and stored for use as a bioweapon
onelook.com...]Onelook Quick Definition[/url]
www.ifpri.org...]Food Safety and Food Security in Food Trade[/url] pdf
Aflatoxins are well recognized as a cause of liver cancer, but they have additional important toxic effects. In farm and laboratory animals, chronic exposure to aflatoxins compromises immunity and interferes with protein metabolism and multiple micronutrients that are critical to health. These effects have not been widely studied in humans, but the available information indicates that at least some of the effects observed in animals also occur in humans. The prevalence and level of human exposure to aflatoxins on a global scale have been reviewed, and the resulting conclusion was that approximately 4.5 billion persons living in developing countries are chronically exposed to largely uncontrolled amounts of the toxin. A limited amount of information shows that, at least in those locations where it has been studied, the existing aflatoxin exposure results in changes in nutrition and immunity. The aflatoxin exposure and the toxic affects of aflatoxins on immunity and nutrition combine to negatively affect health factors (including HIV infection) that account for >40% of the burden of disease in developing countries where a short lifespan is prevalent. Food systems and economics render developed-country approaches to the management of aflatoxins impractical in developing-country settings, but the strategy of using food additives to protect farm animals from the toxin may also provide effective and economical new approaches to protecting human populations.
Human aflatoxicosis in developing countries: a review of toxicology, exposure, potential health consequences, and interventions. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Nov;80(5):1106-22. Williams JH, Phillips TD, Jolly PE, Stiles JK, Jolly CM, Aggarwal D. Peanut Collaborative Research Program, Griffin, GA, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org PMID: 15531656
Originally posted by soficrow
mattison - Sorry, have to a do just a bit at a time.
Most of the studies mentioned above concluded that the microwave effect, if it existed, was indistinguishable from the effects of external heating. However, it was recently demonstrated (Kakita 1995) that the microwave effect is distinguishable from external heating by the fact that it is capable of extensively fragmenting viral DNA, something that heating to the same temperature did not accomplish. This experiment consisted of irradiating a bacteriophage PL-1 culture at 2450 MHz and comparing this with a separate culture heated to the same temperature. The survival percentage was approximately the same in both cases, but evaluation by electrophoresis and electron microscopy showed that the DNA of the microwaved samples had mostly disappeared. In spite of the evolving complexity of all the previous experiments, electrophoresis had not been used to compare irradiated and externally heated samples prior to this. Electron microscopy had been used to study the bacteriocidal effects of microwaves (Rosaspina 1993, 1994) and these results also showed that microwaves had effects that were indistinguishable from those of external heating.
A review of the data from the various referenced experiments shows a common pattern -- for the first few minutes of irradiation there is no pronounced effect, and then a cascade of microbial destruction occurs. The data pattern greatly resembles the dynamics of a capacitor; first there is an accumulation of energy, and then a catastrophic release. It may simply indicate a threshhold temperature has been reached, or it may indicate a two-stage process is at work.
In the morning, he sent a fax to the agency, explaining how the research fell within the parameters of the grant. The NIH accepted his explanation and assured him that all was well. "They are usually fairly liberal in that regard," Lai says. "To do otherwise would stifle the scientific process."
The incident, he says, was only the beginning in a David-and-Goliath conflict pitting him-and other researchers-against an emerging technology that would rapidly become one of the most lucrative and powerful businesses on the planet: the cell phone industry.
The controversy goes back to a study by Lai and Singh published in a 1995 issue of Bioelectromagnetics. They found an increase in damaged DNA in the brain cells of rats after a single two-hour exposure to microwave radiation at levels considered "safe" by government standards.
The idea behind that study was relatively simple: expose rats to microwave radiation similar to that emitted by cell phones, then examine their brain cells to see if any DNA damage resulted. Such damage is worrisome because DNA carries the body's genetic code and breaks, if not repaired properly, could lead to mutations and even cancer.
Under "physiological" conditions (a 0.1 molar solution of NaCl), a DNA molecule takes on the form of a disordered coil with a radius of gyration of several micrometers; if any lengths of the molecule come within 1 nm of one other, they strongly repel. But under different conditions--in a highly dilute aqueous solution that also contains a small concentration of polyvalent cations--the same DNA molecule condenses into a tightly packed, circumferentially wound torus.
Charge-reversal of colloids also plays an important role in our final example of DNA-inspired electrostatics, which is drawn from the field of gene therapy.15 DNAlipid complexes are important biomedical materials because they have been shown to be effective carriers of DNA inside living cells. When we prepare a solution that contains both DNA strands and positively charged lipids at various mixing ratios, the negatively charged DNA molecules associate spontaneously with the lipid molecules. Usually, lipids are either neutral or negatively charged, so the cell membrane tends to repel negatively charged DNA molecules that one wants to inject into the cell for purposes of gene therapy. By complexation of DNA with positively charged lipids, the electrostatic barrier for DNA injection can be lowered and gene delivery facilitated.
It is interesting to compare the physics of the lamellar structure with that of a second type of liquid crystal structure encountered for the colloidal complexes: the inverted hexagonal phase shown in figure 4b. Complexes with this structure perform better than the lamellar case for gene therapy purposes. The hexagonal geometry arises in solutions of DNA and cationic (plus neutral) lipid to which has been added a lipid species that prefers negative curvature at the water interface. The radius of the inverted bilayer is essentially imposed by the requirement of surface charge density matching with the hexagonally packed DNA. In this case, the geometry imposes local electrical neutrality; there is no self-adjusting structural degree-of-freedom, such as the DNADNA spacing, that allows the system to deviate from its isoelectric point.
In 1999, front-page headline stories in the British press revealed Rowett Institute scientist Dr. Arpad Pusztai's explosive research findings that GE potatoes, spliced with DNA from the snowdrop plant and a commonly used viral promoter, the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMv), are poisonous to mammals. GE-snowdrop potatoes, found to be significantly different in chemical composition from regular potatoes, damaged the vital organs and immune systems of lab rats fed the GE potatoes. Most alarming of all, damage to the rats' stomach linings --apparently a severe viral infection -- most likely was caused by the CaMv viral promoter a promoter spliced into nearly all GE foods and crops.,
In addition to the foreign proteins which result, cellular processes can be altered due to chromosomal effects at the point of injection leading to unforeseen changes in composition. Tests on these brand new GM crops have of necessity been short-term and limited, but have already shown that rats fed GM potatoes gain weight slowly and display altered digestive tractsEven negative studies only show that the risk of a given effect is small.. Claims of safety based on these limited tests is like saying that water which tests free of bacteria is safe to drink even though is may be laced with lead.
When gene engineers splice a foreign gene into a plant or microbe, they often link it to another gene, called an antibiotic resistance marker gene (ARM), that helps determine if the first gene was successfully spliced into the host organism. Some researchers warn that these ARM genes might unexpectedly recombine with disease-causing bacteria or microbes in the environment or in the guts of animals or people who eat GE food, contributing to the growing public health danger of antibiotic resistance -- of infections that cannot be cured with traditional antibiotics, for example new strains of salmonella, e-coli, campylobacter, and enterococci. EU (European Union) authorities are currently considering a ban on all GE foods containing antibiotic resistant marker genes.
Earlier this year, Cornell University researchers made a startling discovery. They found that pollen from genetically engineered Bt corn was poisonous to Monarch butterflies. The study adds to a growing body of evidence that GE crops are adversely affecting a number of beneficial insects, including ladybugs and lacewings, as well as beneficial soil microorganisms, bees, and possibly birds.
Genetically engineered products clearly have the potential to be toxic and a threat to human health. In 1989 a genetically engineered brand of L-tryptophan, a common dietary supplement, killed 37 Americans and permanently disabled or afflicted more than 5,000 others with a potentially fatal and painful blood disorder, eosinophilia myalgia syndrome (EMS), before it was recalled by the Food and Drug Administration.
The terminator-gene barnase is a universal poison that breaks
down RNA, an intermediate in the expression of all genes. The recombinase,
in theory, breaks and rejoins DNA at specific sites, but is far from
accurate, so it has the potential to break and rejoin DNA inappropriately,
thereby scrambling the genome in unpredictable, lethal ways.
Gene-splicing will inevitably result in unanticipated outcomes and dangerous surprises that damage plants and the environment. Researchers conducting experiments at Michigan State University several years ago found that genetically-altering plants to resist viruses can cause the viruses to mutate into new, more virulent forms. Scientists in Oregon found that a genetically engineered soil microorganism, Klebsiella planticola, completely killed essential soil nutrients. Environmental Protection Agency whistle blowers issued similar warnings in 1997 protesting government approval of a GE soil bacteria called Rhizobium melitoli.
Dr. Pusztai's pathbreaking research work unfortunately remains incomplete (government funding was cut off and he was fired after he spoke to the media). But more and more scientists around the world are warning that genetic manipulation can increase the levels of natural plant toxins in foods (or create entirely new toxins) in unexpected ways by switching on genes that produce poisons.
There's a growing body of evidence that evolution is no longer something only seen either in this year's flu virus or Cretaceous tyrannosaur bones. It's happening everywhere, right now, and charging full-steam ahead. ...Research on toads, frogs, salamanders, fish, lizards, squirrels and plants are all showing evidence that some species are attempting to adapt to new conditions in a time frame of decades, not eons, say biologists. ...What's more, one of the biggest reasons for all this evolution right now may be that human-induced changes to climate and landscapes give species few other options.
"Basically, a species can do three things," said the University of Sydney's Richard Shine: "go extinct, move or adapt." ..."In the past 20 years, essentially all evolutionary biologists have come to widely recognize the importance and prevalence of (what's) often called 'rapid evolution,'" wrote evolutionary biologist Andrew Hendry of McGill University, who responded to questions via email from the Galapagos Islands. "Many conservation biologists have recently come to the same realization and I expect that the rest will soon follow." ...Rapid evolution is good news for conservation biologists. It implies that the number of species that might go extinct will be less than some current estimates, which predict as many as one-third of all species alive today will be wiped out by 2050.
For a long time, paleontologists thought everything always evolved very slowly. But in 1972, Niles Eldridge and Steven J. Gould proposed that sometimes, when there is pressure to change, species evolve much more quickly. ...Their "Punctuated Equilibrium" hypothesis explained why Eldridge would find layer upon layer of one sort of trilobite in rocks, "then BOOM, another kind of trilobite," said Spencer Lucas, curator of paleontology and geology at the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. ...So it's not entirely surprising to a paleontologist to hear that biologists are discovering cases of rapid evolution, he said.
Originally posted by engenerQ
evalution is a slow process so what your looking for is as follows.
Originally posted by engenerQ
but when talking about humans and maj. changes like another oposable thumb or telekenetic powers are slow to show themselves in becoming a domanant praticle trait. but in theroy evry genaration is a step closer to a better genetic adaption but it is easy to see that its not that easy it goes the other way to a certin genaration may be worsethen an other. the fact is as far as human evalution its a very long process b/c of how complex of a organism we are. so we can asume that in less complex things evolve faster then others
Providing the strongest evidence yet that humans are still evolving, researchers have detected some 700 regions of the human genome where genes appear to have been reshaped by natural selection, a principal force of evolution, within the last 5,000 to 15,000 years.
The finding adds substantially to the evidence that human evolution did not grind to a halt in the distant past, as is tacitly assumed by many social scientists. Even evolutionary psychologists, who interpret human behavior in terms of what the brain evolved to do, hold that the work of natural selection in shaping the human mind was completed in the pre-agricultural past, more than 10,000 years ago.
"There is ample evidence that selection has been a major driving point in our evolution during the last 10,000 years, and there is no reason to suppose that it has stopped," said Jonathan Pritchard, a population geneticist at the University of Chicago who headed the study. ...The selected genes he has detected fall into a handful of functional categories, as might be expected if people were adapting to specific changes in their environment.
Still Evolving, Human Genes Tell New Story
Originally posted by Enkidu
The hardest thing to do with this kind of thing is establish causality. There are so many other factors in the general environment, from increased electromagnetic pollution to fluoride in the water to Splenda in my Coke Zero. Who knows what causes anything?
As for attributing human mutation to electromagnetic or chemical pollutants,
there are a couple of things in our favor that make it less problematic.
In any event, I just don't see a need to worry.
Extreme mutations won't breed.
I say calm down, give these pollution-derived mutations a chance to kill off about, oh... half the world's population first. Yeah, half should be just about right. Then we'll deal with them, if necessary.
For more than 50 years scientists like Max Delbrück and Conrad H. Waddington have been proposing models based on the idea that macromolecules form complex networks of functionally interacting components, and suggesting that the molecular mechanisms underlying most biological processes correspond to particular steady states adopted by such cellular networks.
Such systems-level conjectures complement molecular biology's reductionist, one-gene/one-function point-of-view in several ways. First, they provide a framework for understanding general biological properties like robustness and adaptability. It is unclear, for example, why more than half of all unique yeast genes (i.e., those without any recognizable genomic homolog) are dispensable for viability. These models also address limitations of the one-gene/one-function paradigm, such as the "gene number paradox": how species as different in complexity as worms and humans could contain approximately the same number of genes.
Systems-level models also provide testable hypotheses to explain, and not merely describe, cellular events like differentiation and homeostasis. Finally, they could aid early drug development, by considering a drug's actions in the context of the cellular networks in which the drug target functions.
An investment of $100 million should be enough to correlate the genome with function, and identify new basic research and drug targets
MapQuest and global positioning systems have radically changed the way we travel. By showing us where we are relative to where we want to go, these tools simplify the job of getting from point A to point B, and make travel in unfamiliar places less stressful. Some years ago I realized molecular biologists face an analogous problem: Cells contain tens of thousands of proteins and other macromolecules, which mediate hundreds of thousands of physical interactions at any given moment. Yet biologists lacked the navigational aids to traverse those interaction networks, aids that travelers today take for granted.