Leukemia is cancer of the blood; it is treatable and curable
by bone marrow transplant, which is the original stem cell therapy. Leukemia has
been very well researched since the 1940's; bone marrow transplants to treat leukemia were relatively common by 1950, and established as a cure by
1960. However, despite its importance to cancer and stem cell therapy, little research on stem cells and leukemia is available in the public domain.
Most cancer/stem cell information is privately owned, and protected under Intellectual Property Rights legislation. So public research is playing
catch-up with private medical industries; stem cell therapy is a political football, and despite its proven ability to cure cancer, remains classified
as an "experimental" treatment that is not covered by insurance.
The politics driving science today demand that cancer be described as "genetic" - even though cancer is now the leading cause of death in the USA,
and therefor, obviously NOT genetic - and which contradicts the extensive body of research showing that cancer results from the interplay of
infections with contaminations inside the patient's body, and the multifactorial impact on stem cells.
It seems obvious that insurance will not cover stem cell therapy precisely because
cancer and other chronic diseases result from infectious and
chemical contaminants that are extremely common
in our food, air, and water - so treatment would need to be provided several times in any
person's life. Too expensive to cover. Plus, it's exceptionally profitable to focus on treating secondary symptoms.
Although most stem cell/leukemia research remains privately owned, the string "+cancer OR neoplasia OR metaplasia +fibroblast OR myofibroblasts OR
fibroblasts" will retrieve 1,723,680 citations through PubMed, the National Institutes of Health database. Remember: fibroblasts are connective
tissue stem cells. But NOTE: adding "OR stem cells" to the string results in the number of citations dropping from 1.7 million down to 480.
Here are a few articles from a recent search:
2001 - "Stem cell biology has come of age. Unequivocal proof that stem cells exist in the haematopoietic system has given way to the prospective
isolation of several tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells, the initial delineation of their properties and expressed genetic programmes, and the
beginnings of their utility in regenerative medicine. Perhaps the most important and useful property of stem cells is that of self-renewal. Through
this property, striking parallels can be found between stem cells and cancer cells: tumours may often originate from the transformation of normal stem
cells, similar signalling pathways may regulate self-renewal in stem cells and cancer cells, and cancer cells may include 'cancer stem cells' - rare
cells with indefinite potential for self-renewal that drive tumorigenesis."
Stem cells, cancer, and cancer stem
Nature. 2001 Nov 1;414(6859):105-11. Reya T, Morrison SJ, Clarke MF, Weissman IL. Departments of Pathology and Developmental Biology,
Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California 94305, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org PMID: 11689955
2004 - "We generated expression profiles of cancer-associated fibroblasts using oligochip arrays and compared them to those of uninvolved
fibroblasts. ...The distinct molecular expression profiles of cancer-associated fibroblasts in colon cancer metastasis support the notion that these
fibroblasts form a favorable microenvironment for cancer cells."
Role of cancer-associated stromal fibroblasts in metastatic colon cancer to the liver and their expression profiles.
Oncogene. 2004 Sep
23;23(44):7366-77. Nakagawa H, Liyanarachchi S, Davuluri RV, Auer H, Martin EW Jr, de la Chapelle A, Frankel WL. Division of Human Cancer Genetics,
Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA. PMID: 15326482
1994 - "Cancer stem cells are nonhomogeneous even in a single disease such as the acute
. Source: Nature. 1994 Feb 17;367(6464):645-8. A cell initiating human acute myeloid leukaemia after transplantation
into SCID mice.
Lapidot T, Sirard C, Vormoor J, Murdoch B, Hoang T, Caceres-Cortes J, Minden M, Paterson B, Caligiuri MA, Dick JE. Department of
Genetics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. PMID: 7509044
2005 - "...despite their critical importance, much remains to be learned about the developmental origin of leukaemic stem cells and the
molecular pathways underlying the transformation of normal cells into leukaemic stem cells."
Cancer stem cells: lessons from leukaemia.
Cell Prolif. 2005 Dec;38(6):357-61. Bonnet D. Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, London,
UK. PMID: 16300649
1962 - Comparison of the proliferative capacity of acute leukaemia cells in bone marrow and blood.
Nature. 1962 Mar 17;193:1085-6. MAUER AM,
FISHER V. PMID: 14471509
2005 - "Although the link between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer is well established, new research suggests that stem cells play an
important role in the development of this malignant disease. JeanMarie Houghton and colleagues recently showed that H. pylori-induced inflammation in
mice caused the migration of stem cells originating from bone marrow to the stomach, where they subsequently developed into gastric tumours.1Previous
evidence suggests that bone-marrow-derived cells have a reparative function on being recruited to areas of injury or inflammation. The idea that these
cells might also play a role in the development of cancer revisits a concept that arose partly from the observation in the 1970s that only 1% of
leukemia cells grow into colonies in vitro, an ability that later earned these cells the label "cancer stem cells."2 Houghton and colleagues'
research suggests that similar stem cells may give rise to gastric cancer, a finding that presents a new way of thinking about the pathogenesis of a
disease that is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, killing nearly 600 000 people each year."
Do stem cells cause gastric cancer?
CMAJ. 2005 Feb 1;172(3):325-6. Secko D. PMID: 15684111
2005 - "The identification of neurospheres from adult brain tumors, and specifically from an adult GBM, is strengthening the case for the importance
of cancer "stem" cells in the genesis of these malignancies. A thorough genetic dissection of such cells on a larger scale should give new insights
for the therapeutic targeting of these cancer "queen-bee" cells."
2004 Oct 6;3:25. Genetic alterations and in vivo tumorigenicity of
neurospheres derived from an adult glioblastoma.
Tunici P, Bissola L, Lualdi E, Pollo B, Cajola L, Broggi G, Sozzi G, Finocchiaro G. Istituto
Nazionale Neurologico Besta, Dept. Experimental Neurology, Milano, Italy. email@example.com PMID: 15469606
2003 - Mutant Stem Cells May Seed Cancer
1997 - Basic fibroblast growth factor levels in cancer cells and in sera of patients suffering from proliferative disorders of the prostate.
Prostate 1997 Jun 1;31(4):223-33 Cronauer MV, et al.
1998 - Independent expression of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in patients with
carcinoma and sarcoma.
Anticancer Res 1998; 18(3B):2063-8 Linder C, et al
2003 - Stem cells and breast cancer: A field in transit.
Nat Rev Cancer. 2003 Nov;3(11):832-44. Smalley M, Ashworth A. The Breakthrough Breast
Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Research, Fulham Road, London SW3 6JB, UK. PMID: 14668814