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The H5N1 virus caused proteins known as cytokines to rush to infected lung tissue
linkWe demonstrated that patients with H5N1 disease had unusually high serum levels of IP-10 (interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10).
MARIJUANA AND IMMUNE SYSTEM Berkeley Edu study link
THC has profound immunosuppressive effects on the immune function.
Studies demonstrated that pretreatment of macrophages with THC "resulted in dose-dependent inhibition in their ability to prevent virus replication in target HSV2.
Indeed, recent studies have demonstrated that "THC directly inhibits the expression of cytokine-induced NO in macrophages"(Baldwin 1611).
THC suppresses Cytotoxic T lymphoctyes (CTL) from lysing within infected cells.
THC affected cytokine production, particularly of chemokines and IL-10, in human T, B, NK and myeloid cells
marijuana use has a broader range of effects on AMs including suppression of phagocytosis, inhibition of bacterial and tumor cell killing and a reduction in their ability to produce inflammatory cytokines.
Journal of Immunology
Tetrahydrocannabinol Treatment Suppresses Immunity.
These results suggested that THC injection suppressed the cytokine environment promoting Th1 immunity.
Partners Asthma Center
Allergic asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by eosinophilic inflammation and airway hyper-reactivity. Cytokines and chemokines specific for Th2-type inflammation predominate in asthma and in animal models of this disease. The role of Th1-type inflammatory mediators in asthma remains controversial. IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10; CXCL10) is an IFN-gamma-inducible chemokine that preferentially attracts activated Th1 lymphocytes. IP-10 is up-regulated in the airways of asthmatics, but its function in asthma is unclear. To investigate the role of IP-10 in allergic airway disease, we examined the expression of IP-10 in a murine model of asthma and the effects of overexpression and deletion of IP-10 in this model using IP-10-transgenic and IP-10-deficient mice. Our experiments demonstrate that IP-10 is up-regulated in the lung after allergen challenge. Mice that overexpress IP-10 in the lung exhibited significantly increased airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilia, IL-4 levels, and CD8(+) lymphocyte recruitment compared with wild-type controls. In addition, there was an increase in the percentage of IL-4-secreting T lymphocytes in the lungs of IP-10-transgenic mice. In contrast, mice deficient in IP-10 demonstrated the opposite results compared with wild-type controls, with a significant reduction in these measures of Th2-type allergic airway inflammation. Our results demonstrate that IP-10, a Th1-type chemokine, is up-regulated in allergic pulmonary inflammation and that this contributes to the airway hyperreactivity and Th2-type inflammation seen in this model of asthma.
Medoff, B. D., A. Sauty, et al. (2002). "IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (CXCL10) contributes to airway hyperreactivity and airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma." J Immunol 168(10): 5278-86.
Originally posted by marg6043
I have taken shot therapy for allergies before and the shots has taken care of my allergy problem but render me susceptible to other side effects like hives.
In H5N1 cases, the incubation time has mostly been from 2 to 4 days but has stretched to 8 days, the WHO report says.
Initial symptoms are more likely to include diarrhea in avian flu than in ordinary flu, the report says. The problem can appear up to a week before any respiratory symptoms. That feature, combined with the detection of viral RNA in stool samples, suggests that the virus grows in the gastrointestinal tract.
Lower respiratory tract symptoms such as shortness of breath appear early in the course of the illness.
The report also discusses the "severe" lung injury found in autopsies of H5N1 victims, whose lungs become choked with debris resulting from the body's intense response to the infection.
The authors say the body's innate immune response to the virus, involving heavy release of proteins that trigger inflammation, may contribute to the severity of the disease.