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The deepest drilling ever done by mankind is the drilling that has taken place on the Kola Peninsula in Russia. This drilling started in 1970 and had reached a depth of 12,262 meters, in 1994. The drilling itself was done differently in the Kola Peninsula. The entire drill itself was not rotated; only the drill bit was turned by the flow of drilling mud.
Vertical shaft mines hold the record for being the deepest mines in the world. Most are located in South Africa due to its abundance of diamond and gold deposits. As of 2003 the deepest mine is the East Rand mine at 3585 meters, but as technology improves and the search for natural resources continues many mines are constantly being deepened. In the next few years, the Western Deep mine will reach 5 km.
Arabika Massif, Western Caucasus:
October 2004 expedition news
The Ukrainian Speleological Association is happy to inform speleologists around the world about a historic accomplishment: the first 2000m+ cave on Earth became a reality. The 2000m milestone in deep cave explorations has been vanquished in Krubera Cave, Arabika Massif, Abkhazia, during the third expedition of "The Call of the Abyss" project in the year of 2004, conducted between October 1-28.
There is no way to measure the temperature at the Earth's core
directly. We know from mines and drill holes that, near
the surface of the Earth, the temperature increases by about
1 degree Fahrenheit for every 60 feet in depth. If this
temperature increase continued to the center of the Earth, the
Earth's core would be 100,000 degrees Celsius!
But nobody believes the Earth is that hot; the temperature increase
must slow down with depth and the core is probably
about 3000 to 5000 degrees Celsius.
First comes the mantle, this is a layer that is bellow the crust of the earth. This is said to go down 2,900 kilometers; it's temperature is about 870 degrees Celsius. The outer core has a very high temperature and ranges from about 4,400 degrees Celsius to about 6,100 degrees Celsius. The outer core beginnings where the mantle stops and it extends further down to the center 2,250 kilometers. The inner core is about 6,400 kilometers below the earths surface. the temperature at the inner core of the earth is at the high is about 7,000 degrees Celsius.