Thanks TA, loam.
TA - I listened to your podcast, but need to go back to it when I am less distracted, so won't comment right now.
I am posting some of my notes, with links. Briefly, I have been searching for info on 1) complexity theory as it applies to earthquakes and other
geophysical phenomena, 2) seismic wave amplification, and 3) feedback loops between internal and external magnetic radiation. ...I am investigating
the hypothesis that the planet's structure is a complex adaptive
system - not just a complex system. Probably heretical.
Just as info about ice age cycles that was openly discussed in 1970's publications now has 'disappeared' from the public domain, so
has discussion about complexity theory as it applies to geophysical phenomenon like earthquakes.
...There should be much, much more than there
is, with more detail and description of the complex system, as well as delineation of the components/factors - and especially, synthetic factors
resulting from industrial activity. This dearth of information is especially odd considering complexity theory was born from geophysical studies, and
a desire to predict earthquakes.
Re: Seismic Wave Amplification:
I found one particularly intriguing reference to the fact that geology can create underground "lens structures" that focus S-waves (at least),
and amplify them
- but so far, not much else on this phenomenon. However, it does have some promise to help explain potential impacts from voids
or now-empty chambers, and oil fields.
"our results suggest that a contact between high velocity material underlying the Santa Monica Mountains and low velocities of the Los Angeles Basin
is warped to form a 3D lens that focuses waves arriving from the north on sites in mid-Santa Monica. ...enhanced damage in Santa Monica is explained
in the main by focusing due to a lens structure at a depth of several km beneath the surface, and having a finite lateral extent.
...The reason why the difference of S-wave amplification factors between the central and northern parts of Santa Monica is significantly larger than
the coda amplification factors, is that S-wave energy is focused on the stations through the lens, while coda wave rays, being omnidirectional, are
Localized Amplification of Seismic Waves
Wave amplification in natural basin formations is well-studied - but oddly, the principles are not applied theoretically or predictively to synthetic
formations like pit mines, for example.
Wave amplification in basins, Ie.:
Urban Seismic Experiments Investigate Seattle Fault and Basin
An analysis of simulated and observed blast records in the Salt Lake
Wave Amplification, general:
Empirical Methods for Estimating Seismic Wave Amplification I: Studies Around the
Empirical Methods for Estimating Seismic Wave Amplification During Earthquakes III:
Interesting study using satellite data:
"Wide area around the future epicenter reaches a metastable state, and the system turns to be very sensitive to small external actions.
concept of SOC does not contradict to the concept of dilatation. However it assumes that significantly greater region is involved during the last
stages of the earthquake preparation as the dilatation theory implies....during the last stages of earthquake formation, fractures emit
electromagnetic waves with increasing frequency able to penetrate into the ionosphere and magnetosphere, ..."
CHANGES IN GEOLOGICAL FAULTS ASSOCIATED WITH EARTHQUAKES
BACKGROUND - COMPLEXITY THEORY
The best (most accessible) explanations about complexity theory I've found are contained in economic papers, with passing reference to earthquakes.
...The whole systems approach seems to have been redirected - away from earthquakes - to focus on economics.
On Self-Organized Criticality (SOC):
A COMPLEX SYSTEM VIEW OF WHY STOCK MARKETS CRASH
"A central property of a complex system is the possible occurrence of coherent large-scale collective behaviors with a very rich structure, resulting
from the repeated non-linear interactions among its constituents: the whole turns out to be much more than the sum of its parts. ...It turns out that
most complex systems around us do exhibit rare and sudden transitions, that occur over time intervals that are short compared to the characteristic
time scales of their posterior evolution. Such extreme events express more than anything else the underlying "forces" usually hidden by almost
perfect balance and thus provide the potential for a better scientific understanding of complex systems. These crises have fundamental societal
impacts and range from large natural catastrophes, catastrophic events of environmental degradation, to the failure of engineering structures, crashes
in the stock market, social unrest leading to large-scale strikes and upheaval, economic drawdowns on national and global scales, regional power
blackouts, traffic gridlock, diseases and epidemics, etc. It is essential to realize that the long-term behavior of these complex systems is often
controlled in large part by these rare catastrophic events..."
"But because there are so many constituents in a large system, their multiple relations generate a relational network that can be highly complex,
variegated, and surprising."
SYNTHETIC ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS I - THEORIES
"Self-organized criticality is hypothesized to link the multitude of complex phenomena observed in Nature to simplistic physical laws and / or one
underlying process. It is a theory of the internal interactions of large systems. Specifically, it states that large interactive systems will
self-organize into a critical state (one governed by a power law, see figure 1). Once in this state small perturbations result in chain reactions,
which can affect any number of elements within the system."
Introduction to Self-Organized Criticality & Earthquakes
A seismic wave is an elastic wave generated by an impulse such as an earthquake or an explosion. Seismic waves may travel either along or near the
earth's surface (Rayleigh and Love waves) or through the earth's interior (P and S waves).
A body wave is a seismic wave that moves through the interior of the earth, as opposed to surface waves that travel near the earth's surface. P and S
waves are body waves. Each type of wave shakes the ground in different ways.
A P wave, or compressional wave, is a seismic body wave that shakes the ground back and forth in the same direction and the opposite direction as the
direction the wave is moving. P waves are the only waves that can go through the core.
An S wave, or shear wave, is a seismic body wave that shakes the ground back and forth perpendicular to the direction the wave is moving.
Glossary of Basic Concepts