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PARIS, Jan 16 (Reuters) - France has cut the number of Rafale combat jets it is ordering from Dassault Aviation to 51 from 59 and plans to divert the money into improving the jet's radar system, a source familiar with the matter said on Monday. The value of the overall contract, which analysts estimate at 3 billion euros ($3.6 billion), will remain unchanged.
But the number of planes taken will be reduced, and the budget for the missing eight aircraft will be spent instead on upgrading radar and other electronic systems, the source said. One of the main priorities will be to fit the Rafale with a next-generation, electronic-scanning radar with no moving parts, known as an active antenna radar, the source said.
Such contract work is likely mainly to benefit French defence electronics firm Thales, which supplies the radar on the Rafale.
Redesigning the radar will mean that all the Rafale jets will be delivered with the same advanced system, designed to help give the French aircraft a competitive edge. "(The French) would rather have fewer planes but a better aircraft," the source said, adding this would improve its export prospects. So far only France has bought the plane."Obviously anything that boosts the exportability of the Rafale is a good thing for us," a French industry source said.
order for 59 Rafales [...] likely to be reduced to 51 aircraft [...] the French MoD said [...] that "this could allow for the introduction of new sensors developed by the French industry on this batch.
'Elta AESA is flying'
Bill Sweetman, IDR Technology & Aerospace Editor (Jane's)
Israel Aircraft Industries' Elta subsidiary is testing a prototype of a fighter radar with an active electronically scanned array (AESA). The first flight took place earlier this year in Elta's Boeing 737 testbed. The company says that it is ready to take orders for the new radar and that it could be delivered within 18 months of an order.
Designated EL/M-2052, the AESA radar is designed either for new-production applications or as a retrofit for the company's in-service EL/M-2032-series radars, some 400 of which are in service worldwide. As an upgrade, the radar would replace the old antenna and transmitter and use the existing power supply and radar processor.
One unusual feature is that the array comprises 'bricks' of 24 transmit-receiver modules, making it easy to assemble the AESA in different configurations to match the size and shape of an existing fighter nose. Smaller, lower-module-count versions can be air-cooled, reducing weight and making integration simpler.
The Ministry of Defence has awarded a contract to QinetiQ to demonstrate the advanced targeting capability offered by Electronically Scanned (E-Scan) radar technology. QinetiQ has teamed with SELEX Sensors and Airborne Systems and BAE Systems Customer Solutions & Support to integrate an Active Electronically-Scanned Array (AESA) on a Tornado GR4A for assessment by the RAF in 2007.
With growing interest in extending the in-service life of the GR4, the project will explore the use of Active E-Scan Array (AESA) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in an air-to-surface role, including real-time target imaging, with a view to replacing the installed mechanically-scanned terrain following/ground mapping radar system originally designed in the 1970s.
"We anticipate that ARTS will offer considerable improvements in performance and significantly help reduce maintenance cost when compared with the current in-service solution," explained Andrew Sleigh, MD of QinetiQ's defence business. "By replacing the mechanically scanned antenna with an array made using discrete transmit/receive (T/R) modules we can achieve greater range and target resolution whilst at the same time benefiting from an inherently more robust design."
ARTS benefits from a range of Ministry of Defence and UK industry funded research programmes in the fields of AESA and SAR technologies, and will provide a continuing route for the rapid exploitation of future research and development. The programme also represents the first use of the Tornado Research Exploitation Vehicle (TREV) concept that will support MoD's aspiration to achieve faster exploitation of research by the front-line.
The contract was placed by the Defence Procurement Agency's (DPA's) Sensors, Avionics, Navigation and Air Electronic Warfare Integrated Project Team (SANS & Air EW IPT) on behalf of MoD's Research Acquisition Organisation (RAO) as part of the Output 6 Research Programme sponsored by the DPA's Future Business Group (FBG). ARTS will also be supported by the Defence Logistic Organisation's (DLO's) Tornado IPT. Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) will provide MoD with independent technical advice on the programme.
ARTS will run in parallel to the multi-national Advanced Multi-Mode Solid-State Airborne Radar (AMSAR) programmes and will focus on specific areas of capability development (SAR and Automatic Target Recognition (ATR)). ARTS will also focus on platform integration and aims to raise System Readiness Levels (SRLs). It is anticipated that AMSAR will continue to provide a programme through which to raise Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and explore the potential for AESA to contribute to other capability areas.
The UK Ministry of Defence has now awarded a contract to a team led by the boffins at QinetiQ, in order to integrate an Active Electronically-Scanned Array (AESA) on a Tornado GR4A strike aircraft by 2007 for assessment by the RAF. It's interesting that the Tornado F3 long-range air defense fighter or Eurofighter were not picked as the upgrade platforms, but there seems to be a method to Britain's choice....
In terms of Britain's future fighter force, the Eurofighter will generally replace the Tornado F3 air defense fighters. Upgrading the F3s, therefore, makes little sense. The Eurofighters sport advanced ECR-90 CAPTOR multi-mode pulse doppler radars, but the GDTAR Consortium of BAE, EADS, and Thales are already at work on an AESA replacement: the Airborne Multi-mode Solid-state Airborne Radar (AMSAR).
Hence the recent announcement of this QinetiQ-led Advanced Radar Targeting System (ARTS) project. ARTS will explore the use of AESA and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in an air-to-surface role, including real-time target imaging, with a view to replacing the 1970s-era Decca Doppler Type 72 mechanically-scanned terrain following/ ground mapping radar system. The program represents the first use of the Tornado Research Exploitation Vehicle (TREV) concept, which is intended to support MoD's aspiration to achieve faster exploitation of research by the front-line.
A combination of AESA multi-mode radar, SAR surface-looking radar and improved computing power for integration of sensor data should be able to radically improve the Tornado GR4's situational awareness of both ground and air spaces around it. Range and target resolution should improve substantially, as should reliability figures; meanwhile, maintenance costs could be expected to drop sharply. When coupled with new weapons like the Storm Shadow stealth cruise missile, Meteor long-range air-air missile and the Brimstone anti-armor missile, an upgraded GR4 could earn a new lease on life over low-intensity and high-intensity battlefields alike.
QinetiQ has teamed on ARTS with SELEX Sensors and Airborne Systems and BAE Systems Customer Solutions & Support. The QinetiQ release notes that the Advanced Radar Targeting System (ARTS) contract was:
"...placed by the Defence Procurement Agency's (DPA's) Sensors, Avionics, Navigation and Air Electronic Warfare Integrated Project Team (SANS & Air EW IPT) on behalf of MoD's Research Acquisition Organisation (RAO) as part of the Output 6 Research Programme sponsored by the DPA's Future Business Group (FBG). ARTS will also be supported by the Defence Logistic Organisation's (DLO's) Tornado IPT. Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) will provide MoD with independent technical advice on the programme."
"ARTS will run in parallel to the multi-national Advanced Multi-Mode Solid-State Airborne Radar (AMSAR) programmes and will focus on specific areas of capability development (SAR and Automatic Target Recognition (ATR)). ARTS will also focus on platform integration and aims to raise System Readiness Levels (SRLs). It is anticipated that AMSAR will continue to provide a programme through which to raise Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and explore the potential for AESA to contribute to other capability areas."
By TOM KINGTON, ROME
Convinced that the Eurofighter Typhoon needs an active, electronically scanned array (AESA) radar for export, the European firms building the aircraft have taken the initiative of funding a radar demonstrator that is now being tested by the United Kingdom and Germany.
The Captor Active Electronically Scanned Array Radar (CAESAR) demonstrator — in which Eurofighter firms have invested “at least 8 million pounds” ($14 million), according to one industrial source — flew for three hours in the United Kingdom on Feb. 24 on a BAC1-11 test-bed aircraft, Selex S&AS said in a March 2 statement.
“It might have taken the ministries twice as long to get this far on their own,” said the source at a Eurofighter partner firm.
CAESAR is the result of three years of research by the Euroradar group of Selex in the United Kingdom, EADS Defence Electronics of Germany, Galileo Avionica of Italy and INDRA of Spain, with the bulk of the funding coming from the British and German firms.
Paul Holbourn, capabilities director at Selex’s Edinburgh plant, said the Captor processor could be retained during an upgrade to an AESA format.
The Eurofighter partner firm source said CAESAR, which could be test flown on a Eurofighter this year, would require “only a few hours” of work for retrofitting, swapping out the antenna and the power supply.
“The lower life-cycle costs of e-scan would more than cover the cost of the retrofit,” he said.
Germany, the United Kingdom and France created the AMSAR program in 1993 to develop an e-scan radar, but after France began to focus on the specific e-scan needs of the Rafale fighter, the United Kingdom and Germany formed a strand of AMSAR known as CECAR, focusing on the Eurofighter. “Having been fully integrated and tested on the ground, the CAESAR system is currently on loan to the CECAR evaluation program,” said the Selex statement. CECAR is organizing the U.K. test flights, Holbourn said. “Now it is up to the Eurofighter partner ministries to commit to CAESAR,” said the industrial source. “No export customer will request an e-scan-equipped Eurofighter until the partners do.”
CAESAR Triumphs As New Gen Of Radar Takes Flight
Mon, 6 Mar 2006, 03:03
The CAESAR (Captor Active Electronically Scanned Array Radar) system is an E-Scan radar demonstrator developed and funded by the Euroradar consortium consisting of several key industry partners – SELEX Sensors & Airborne Systems (S&AS), EADS Defence Electronics of Germany, Galileo Avionica of Italy and INDRA of Spain.
CAESAR has been specifically developed to fit in the Eurofighter Typhoon aircraft and builds upon the highly successful Captor mechanically scanned radar which has already proved to be extremely effective. CAESAR will introduce Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) technology which enable E-scan capability to be fully exploited by the existing Captor radar, while retaining all features and capabilities of the original system.
An international team of engineers have been working on the system to bring it to full functionality for this successful first test flight which took place on Friday 24th February.
This new state-of-the-art AESA technology is becoming the de-facto standard for the primary sensor on advanced fighter aircraft and enables even better reliability, reduced lifecycle costs and improved detection capability. The upgrade package is fully flexible and is readily accommodated within the Typhoon front fuselage allowing easy upgrade of the system.
Having been fully integrated and tested on the ground, the CAESAR system is currently on loan to the CECAR evaluation programme (a joint UK -German government funded programme). This first demonstration flight on a BAC1-11 test-bed aircraft was the culmination of three years work between the European partners. CAESAR has been developed under product development funding from the Euroradar consortium companies.
During the three hour flight the radar successfully engaged air targets and demonstrated operational and performance advantages unique to E-scan fighter radar technology. Further flight trials are scheduled for the latter half of 2006 and these will demonstrate even more advanced air-to-air and air-to-ground performance enhancements.
Having successfully proven the technology, Euroradar is ready to further develop the CAESAR upgrade package so that it can be adopted for production.
Euroradar's Board of Directors (BoD) Chairman Andrew Cowdery said: "This is an exciting stage in the programme. CAESAR is right at the forefront of turning this new technology into operational and proven capability."
A quick bit of math suggests that array has 1292 elements.
Originally posted by Stealth Spy
Here is a new pic of the EL/M-2052 AESA radar on display at the DefExpo - '06 at New Delhi, India. The very radar has been offered to India for the Mig-35 and the Tejas.
Credits to the photograhper Jai.
Its oversized to post here, so here is the link :
Originally posted by planeman
A quick bit of math suggests that array has 1292 elements.
Elta revealed their latest debutant, the EL/M-2052 AESA radar at Aero India. Despite the high profile, the rather inadequate exhibit of the model in a mere corridor facing wall space left the radar, shockingly, mostly unnoticed. If successful, this radar could kill just about every other set in the world, in terms of exportability and capability. As expected, a ridiculously high tracking capability of 64 targets, is given. In the air-to-sea mode, the radar is supposed to acquire and track surface targets up to 160 nm away. There are over 1500 T/R modules in this antenna aperture - I know because I counted!
Activities - Design and Development of Radar Systems
- Multifunction Phased Array Radar and 3D Surveillance Radar for Akash Missile
- Low Level 2D Radar for Fire Control and Air Defence
- Short Range Battle Field Surveillance Radar
- Weapon Locating Radar
- Active Phased Array Radar for AEW&C
- Low level 2D radar and 3D Short & Medium Range Surveillance Radar for Air Defence
- Maritime Patrol Radar for fixed and Rotary Wing Aircraft
- Maritime Patrol Radar with SAR & ISAR
- 3D Medium Range Surveillance Radar for ASW Corvettes
Development of Radar Technologies
- Antennae: Slotted Waveguide, Patch Array & Multibeam Antenna
- T/R Modules and Active Aperture Arrays
- Programmable DSP
- Radar Data Processors
- High Average Power TWT based Transmitters
- High purity sources
- Multi-channel double hetrodyne receivers
Embraer offers Delhi technical assistance in integrating mission systems, while pitching ERJ-145 as the platform
India is slowly progressing its plans to indigenously develop an airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) mission system with some technical assistance from Embraer, which is pitching to supply its ERJ-145 regional jet as the platform.
The Indian Defence Research and Development Organisation's Centre for Airborne Systems laboratory is leading the project, says M Natarajan, scientific adviser to the Indian defence minister.
"After detailed and thorough analysis, a baseline configuration has been evolved and finalised," said Natarajan in a speech to the Aerospace Technologies - Challenges and Opportunities seminar held in conjunction with Aero India. "The scope of the AEW&C programme is to deliver two fully qualified systems to the Indian air force as part of phase one. An additional six to eight systems are contemplated as part of phase two," he added.
Embraer, which has sold AEW&C versions of the ERJ-145 to Brazil, Greece and Mexico, says it has signed a memorandum of understanding with the Indian government to supply the twinjet as the platform.
"Our platform has been selected to carry the Indian radar, communications and self-protection systems," says Embraer Asia Pacific vice-president international business, defence and government markets Sergio Bellato. "We supply the platform and support the programme with our expertise. We are not supplying technology." Bombardier says a modified version of its Global Express remains a potential platform for the AEW&C system, but it is yet to make a decision on whether to bid.
Bombardier says it may also bid for the multi-mission requirement if a request for proposals is released. Israel Aerospace Industries, meanwhile, says it is proposing a Gulftream G200-based solution.
1. 240 deg coverage. Each time 120deg coverage. A/c turns around for 120deg from other side. 1280 modules switched over from one side to the other as required with a switching mech
2. 360deg coverage possible, but restricted only by payload constraints – IAF asked for a lot of systems. Including all that meant only this much could be put into arrays.
3. 65*8*160 watt peak power, 0.07*peakpower = AvgPower (7% duty cycle)
4. Data transfer to 40a/c @ 64kbps VHF/UHF 300km range. LOS. Only info (target chords, speeds etc in a pre-set format).
5. Satcom to ground station – no range limitation. No LOS limitations.
6. Array – S band, IFF – L band (250w amplifier) 500km range for IFF at sides(250km range front & back)
7. 5hrs endurance w/o IFR
8. Cooling by natural convection
9. AA, A2G, A2C modes exist. Inter-leaving doesn’t exist. If end user asks – can be done. Needs a simple switching mechanism.
10. 5 operator consoles.. toilets are there
- 120° on either side
- 300 km range against missile-sized targets
- Shorter ranged radar in the nose.
- IFF fitted effective up to 500 kms
Russian fighter with active phased array radar first shown to public at Indian exhibition
BANGALORE, India. Feb 9 (Interfax-AVN) - The MiG-35 fighter jet, featuring an active phased array radar, made its first foreign public appearance at the Aero India 2007 aerospace show in Bangalore.
"The radar added new combat characteristics to the fighter, and enhanced its effectiveness dramatically," Yury Guskov, the First Deputy Designer General and the Chief Designer of the Fazotron-NIIR Corporation, told Interfax-AVN on Friday.
The active phased array radar has the effective range increased twice. Digital scanning allows it to simultaneously operate in air-to-air and air-to-surface modes, track group and single targets, identifying their type and class.
According to Guskov, there are two such radars now, based on monolith integral circuits. "The main advantage of such radars is that they have transmitters built in every emitting element, while the passive phased array that also features a capability to digitally control the beam has only one transmitter, which affects its reliability significantly. Its guaranteed service life varies from 60-120 hours, while active phased arrays with 680 transmitters remain fully operational even when 10% of them are out of order," he said.
He added that this raised the guaranteed service life of an active phased array radar to 10,000 hours. "We officially guarantee only 600-900 hours now, because the technology still needs to be proven in operation," he said.
He added that the active phased array radar employs a high-speed computer, capable of 50 billion simple operations, which ensures radar signal processing with high resolution, so that targets become visible even if they are located 35-50 meters one from another.
Guskov also said that the radar installed in the MiG-35 also has 680 emitting elements. Later on the number may be increased to 1,064, while the radars of Su-30 will have more than 2,000 of them. "As of now the price of one emitting assembly is $400. When we start mass-production, it will cost far less," he said.
He noted that the active phased array radar of the MiG-35 is based fully and entirely on Russian microelectronics. "Our radar is not inferior to any foreign analogies, but costs less. As a matter of fact, only the U.S. could afford having active phased arrays on their planes. Now Russia joined the club," he said and added that the array is designed so as to be easily assembled and disassembled in the manner of the Lego play sets.
According to him, the array is fully integral with the power supply system and the cooling system of the fighter. "This is of paramount importance, because active phased arrays may be incapacitated quite simply. If no cooling is provided, the element's temperature will immediately rise to 300, 400, 500 degrees Centigrade and it will simply burn. An active phased array radar at a price of several million dollars can burn in mere seconds," he said.
He added that the production version of the active phased array radar to be installed into the MiG-35 fighter will be ready next year.
Yuri Gus'kov - the assistant of general director, the assistant of the design project leader OF OAO corporation "Phazotron-NIIR" Nikolai zhiburtovich - main scientific worker.
Corporation "Phazotron-NIIR" more than 50 years is occupied by development and production of airborne radar of aircraft. During this period were created and transmitted into the operation more than two ten radars, which were exploited and are exploited on the aircraft MiG-17, MiG-19, MiG-21, MiG-23, MiG-29, it is real, Su-11, Su-15, Su-27, Yak-25, Yak-28, Yak-141, Tu-128. Many aircraft- veterans already changed radars on several times. Onboard radar systems (BRLS) of the "Phazotron" always answered and satisfy the highest requirements and successfully they compete with the foreign analogs.
The successful activity of corporation became possible because of the creation of the talented association of chief designers, scientific, technical-engineering workers. Their efforts/forces created the school of "Phazotron", is provided for the equipment of enterprise with highly technological equipment, are inculcated united technologies, unification and modular construction/design of articles, which makes it possible to attain the mobility of production.
This is explained also by the fact that the specialists of "Phazotron", studying the world trends of development BRLS, begin works on their design/projection before obtaining of official technical task from the concrete/specific customer. The creation of the anticipating/leading scientific and technical reserve, which will be claimed in the future, is our basic rule during the development of radar systems.
At present, when all firms, which produce radars for the fighters, deal with the development of the impulse phased antenna cascades (AFAR), we cannot stand in the side, since we must support its scientific and technical potential at the high level. For this very reason, resting only on the internal financial means, "Phazotron" was included in the full-scale development of radar with the impulse phased cascade. In the materials, published in this production of the journal "Phazotron", the group of the authors of corporation headed by Director-General and design project leader "Phazotron-NIIR" presents its, "Phazotronic", the vision of the fulfillment of works on creation BRLS AFAR.
In 90- X the years of the past century the developers of onboard radars of fighters began to encounter the need for the significant improvement of radar systems as one of the most effective means of detection and observation of the aerial targets. In this connection in onboard radars the phased antenna arrays began to take root (HEADLIGHTS). However, their development showed that the replacement of antenna with slot antenna lattice/grid by the passive OF HEADLIGHTS increases energy losses in the high-frequency part RLS several times. For retaining/maintaining the tactical characteristics RLS it was necessary to compensate these losses by an increase in the output power of transmitter, which entailed a gain in weight, volume and required power. All this hampered the operation of such radars on the light fighters. Therefore one of the rational solutions was passage to the use in BRLS of the impulse phased antenna cascades.
However, in our Russia there was a scientific and technical reserve on RLS of traditional technology, including from THE HEADLIGHTS was also a capacious market for works on modernization such RLS taking into account that the modernization and development RLS of the already existing technology were not connected/bonded with that complexity and degree of risk, by which is characterized the work on creation and introduction RLS AFAR, passage from RLS of traditional technology to RLS AFAR proved to be difficult. Therefore it is not surprising that many firms both and abroad, the workers in the area of radar technology, understanding the inevitability of the mastery/adoption of new technologies RLS, nevertheless persistently propose the development programs and modernization RLS for the traditional technology, but not the program of creation RLS AFAR. According to the estimation/evaluation of specialists Texas Instruments, the extinction of the existing technology RLS is unavoidable, but this process will be prolonged.
Without discussing further other technologies of the creation of radars, let us examine the way, passed by "synchro-cyclotron" on the development RLS AFAR.
1. Radar AFAR as the problem of the creation
1.1. Merits AFAR
Application AFAR in BRLS and in the radio-electronic complexes (REK) of fighter has a number of advantages. They are widely known, but without their enumeration it will not be clear, what requirements are imposed on elements BRLS AFAR.
Let us briefly enumerate these merits:
• possibility of designing on basis AFAR fundamentally new integrated REK, which ensure multifunctional work and adaptation to the rapidly changing conditions of complex pomekhotselevoy situation;
• high potential reliability AFAR, that makes it possible to create radars with the period of service, commensurate with the period of the service of fighter;
• operational simplicity;
• work in the more broadband;
• the gain in processing of signal, which makes it possible, for example, to considerably increase radar range.
1.2. Deficiencies AFAR
Let us isolate basic from them:
• the need for the new high(ly)d-integrate element base;
• the complexity of constructing the antenna system;
• the absence of metrological and operational guarantee.
1.3. Strategy of development AFAR
1.3.1. Approaching studies on the problem "radar AFAR", we clear realized that such RLS relate to the complex systems with the high level of technical risk and require high expenditures. For example, in THE USA for the production AFAR were spent billions of dollars. "synchro-cyclotron" understood, that AFAR in Russia of such resources/lifetimes will not chosen be in the stage of creation, and was performed initiative-taking work on its own means. Our Phazotron concept of the creation of radar AFAR briefly can be formulated thus: creation BRLS AFAR for the fighter with the minimum risk with the minimum cost.
The basis of general/common strategy of development AFAR compose the following positions:
• systems approach to the creation of radar on the united technological cycle;
• gradualness (succession) in the development of blocks and algorithmic guarantee with the retention/maintaining of the possibility of development RLS;
• the concentration of the available resources/lifetimes in the key directions of development;
• a maximally possible use of the existing scientific and technical reserve on the traditional technologies RLS;
• the wide application of the standardized technological methods and technical solutions.
Systematization during the development of radar indicates, in the essence, the thorough consideration of the design solutions taking into account the special features of production, maintenance/servicing and functioning BRLS in all stages of life cycle. For example, during the design/projection of multifunctional RLS occurs the mutual coordination ("provyazka") of the algorithms of the solution of the large number of diverse functional tasks in the composition of united entire - the complex of onboard equipment fighter. Specifically, this systems approach is one of the most important conditions of the high competitive ability of the production of "Phazotron".
For finalizing of basic questions of the creation of radar AFAR as the the test of platform- carrier BRLS was selected regular fighter MiG-29.
The problem of creation RLS AFAR was developed/processed from the positions of the fact that precisely AFAR is the narrowest (from the point of view of risk and cost/value) element of the constructed radar. As base BRLS was undertaken the radar of family "beetle", well developed by our corporation.
As the key directions the developments AFAR were determined:
• the design/projection of the radiating fabric/bed of antenna and its elements;
• the development of the receiving-transmitting moduli/modules (PPM), including their element base and construction/design;
• the development of the systems of control, nourishment and cooling AFAR;
• strictly construction AFAR.
1.3.2. The first step/pitch in the creation AFAR on the "Phazotron" was the development of construction/design AFAR with the laying out AFAR into structural components (stage of draft designing). Structural- assembly diagram AFAR is represented in Fig. 1.
After laying out AFAR into the structural elements began the work on each structural element. General and particular requirements were formulated for each structural element. General requirements were brought to the easy servicing and operation, to simplicity of repair AFAR, created on the nontraditional technology, need for creating BRLS AFAR with the mass, which does not exceed the mass BRLS of traditional technology, whereas all the remaining parameters had to be considerably better.
1.3.3. The analysis of block diagram AFAR showed that the "Phazotron" has industrial-technological potential, capable of developing and of preparing all structural elements AFAR with exception of the receiving-transmitting modulus/module.
To theoretically create PPM is possible, but the superimposed on it stringent construction-engineering requirements showed that to create FOR PPM with the required characteristics it can only the enterprise of electronics industry, equipped with contemporary equipment and which possesses the industrial sub-micron technology of the production of the monolithic integrated circuits (MIS), intended for the work in the 3-centimeter wavelength range. Specifically, proceeding these their requirements, during the creation AFAR for the production PPM and MIS "Phazotron" selected two enterprises into Tomsk: Scientific and industrial firm "Mikran" (NPF Of "mikran") and the scientific research institute of semiconductor devices (NIIPP). After conducting this draft designing on the creation AFAR and to its finalizing, it would be possible to pass AFAR for the concrete/specific carrier to the industrial design/projection.
2. Development Of elements AFAR
In this division is brought the information on the development of structural elements AFAR and to the search works, which precede development.
2.1. Selection of the radiating fabric/bed of the antenna
It is well known that the radiating fabric/bed is one of the most important elements of any antenna. For the antenna with electronic control of ray/beam the design of the radiating fabric/bed of antenna and the calculation of the arrangement of the radiating elements on the aperture impose requirements for all other elements, arranged/located after the radiating elements. Therefore for the detailed study of this question was developed multifunctional mathematical model AFAR, that makes it possible to evaluate and to analyze the parameters of the projected/designed antenna system in all stages of united technological cycle.
Basic requirements for the radiating fabric/bed of antenna with its assigned diameter are:
• the maximum angle of deflection of the ray/beam of antenna without the appearance of diffraction (parasitic) side lobes;
• the maximum use factor;
• maximum amplification factor;
• the broad band of the radiated frequencies.
In the process of the selection of distributing the emitters on the aperture of antenna it was examined:
• equidistant: rectangular and hexagonal (regular distribution);
• nonequidistant (irregular distribution).
Large material on the simulation of the diverse variants of the distribution of emitters showed:
• nonequidistant distribution (on which on the "synchro-cyclotron" is accumulated large experience of design/projection) in this stage cannot be used because of the non-optimal at present system of the removal of the heat and of the more stringent (small) design specifications for PPM;
• from the equidistant methods of the arrangement of emitters on the aperture of antenna after the interpretation of results of simulation is selected the equidistant hexagonal distribution of emitters.
The selection of the distances between the element emitters engaged sufficiently much time. However, this selection ensured the absence of diffraction (parasitic) side lobes in the assigned (±"0°) angle of deflection of the ray/beam of antenna.
Are examined the algorithms of control of amplitude-phase distribution according to elements AFAR for the realization of the basic modes of operation BRLS. they are given the results of evaluating the work of algorithms on mathematical model and the results of finalizing algorithms in the real samples of the passive OF HEADLIGHTS, that confirm their complete fitness for control AFAR.
2.2. Selection of the rational radiating elements of the aperture of antenna (AFAR)
The examination of type and construction/design of the radiating element of the aperture of antenna engaged much time.
The diverse variants of the emitters were examined:
* the open standard waveguide (it cannot be used because of its large sizes/dimensions for the assigned frequency band);
* the antenna Of vival'di: this version is most interesting and ensures large frequency band, but for the creation AFAR toward the end of 2006 proved to be insufficiently it was investigated, and work according to this type of emitters continues (stand for finalizing of the emitter Of vival'di it is presented on photo 2);
* the open nonstandard waveguide (square or circular), which ensures the specified distribution of emitters on the aperture, is used with the dielectric insert, which ensures the coefficient of band coverage 2-2,5 (ratio of maximum extreme frequency to the minimum extreme frequency).
2.3. Receiving-transmitting modulus/module AFAR
One of the basic elements AFAR is the receiving-transmitting modulus/module, its characteristics as structural/design sizes/dimensions, they are determined by its integration into AFAR and they cannot be created separately, i.e., separately from that created AFAR. Specifically, from this position are formulated the requirements for PPM given below.
Basic requirements for PPM AFAR:
• the formation of the assigned level of power in the transmitting channel;
• control of the required amplitude-phase characteristics strengthened in transmitting signal channel;
• the reception of the SHF- signals of the required sensitivity with the passive and controlled protection of the low-noise amplifier of receiving channel;
• control of the required amplitude-phase characteristics (AFKH) of receiving signal;
• synchronous switching at entrance and output/yield of receiving and transmitting channels;
• control of the required amplitude-phase assigned characteristics during scanning of ray/beam, the installation of initial AFKH of channels, the levelling off AFKH PPM;
• the internal distribution system of the moduli/modules of second nourishment; control of the state PPM.
Corporation "Phazotron-NIIR" and NPF "Mikran" determined the order of development PPM and of its elements, which includes the following basic stages:
• development and production MIS;
• development and construction PPM;
• the development of the measured complexes and procedures of the measurement of characteristics PPM.
In accordance with the requirements for PPM in NPF "Mikran" is carried out the work on the creation PPM, the production MIS and the technology of their production. During the first stage of work questions of the construction of single-channel PPM were mastered (Fig. 3-7). For measuring the parameters PPM was created the special measuring stand, whose block diagram and common form were given in Fig. 7a, 76. The graphic idea of the results of measurements is shown in Fig. 7v.
2.3.1. Element base PPM AFAR
After modeling PPM the requirements for all used for the development elements were formulated. All elements PPM were prepared in Tomsk in NPF "Mikran" and NIIPP.
2.3.2. Construction/design PPM
_ construction PPM can be diverse and determine arrangement phase center element emitter on aperture antenna, quantity element, arranged inside PPM, diagram control PPM and cooling system oxlajdeni4.
After the production of first single PPM and refinement of construction/design was accepted the solution about the production of 4- channel (group) PPM, which made it possible to place all elements PPM and to create the internal group computing system for control PPM.
Construction/design PPM provides for the ease of the removal/distance of defective PPM and the installation of other, proper PPM.
During the development PPM are taken into account the tasks of the removal of the heat, minimization of tokopotrebleniya, minimization of the mass-and-size parameters PPM, joining/coupling of the exchange of data of control and diagnostics with the central processor. For the purpose of the minimization of the mass-and-size parameters in the construction/design PPM are used the contemporary technological processes of shaping of the multichannel close-packed multilayer SHF- moduli/modules with the combination of ceramic, silicic and organic materials (MccM-.D- technology).
In construction/design PPM is possible the application both foreign MIS (complete set OF SHF MIS for the radar of firm MaSot) and domestic MIS in proportion to the mastery/adoption of their mass production. Is developed ground-based complex for checking the parameters (NKPP) OF PPM AFAR, built on the base of pulse complex plane analyzer of chains/circuits SHF block diagram of this complex is represented in Fig. 9. NKPP is intended for measuring the following parameters of group PPM for different forms of radar signals in the assigned frequency bands and temperatures:
• complex gear ratios/transmission factors in the modes of reception and transfer;
• noise factor in the regime/conditions of receiver;
• maximum output linear power in the regime/conditions of transfer (output power on the compression of amplification factor on 1 d;
3. High-frequency system washing PPM is produced through the radial waveguide, successfully used by the developers of "synchro-cyclotron" on the passive phased lattices/grids (antennas with electronic control of ray/beam and nonequidistant arrangement of emitters).
4. Are examined the problems of tuning basic knots AFAR, the methods of the measurements of amplitude-phase distribution on the aperture of lattice/grid. Are substantiated the procedures of the record of radiation patterns AFAR, that make it possible to completely exclude the application of the complex and expensive equipment (precision supporting- rotary device/equipment, collimator) and to carry out the records of radiation patterns by the easiest method in the compact anechoic chamber of minimal sizes.
5. Control system AFAR solves two groups of the functional tasks: coordinated interaction of separate elements AFAR in the composition of entire BRLS and the guarantee (together with the central processor) of integration AFAR with onboard equipment. The technical solutions, used for the design of control system AFAR, were approved in the appropriate developments of the computational means of "synchro-cyclotron".
6. Control PPM and application of voltage of nourishment are produced through the joint, located in the end part PPM of low-frequency distribution system AFAR.
7. The diagram of nourishment PPM is the distributed power-supply system, which uses converters and high-frequency sources of second power.
8. Cooling system provides for the circulation of the cooling fluid through the cold beds, with which PPM have a contact. For studying the complex processes of heat exchange was developed tsifronaturnaya model. In this case the thermal conditions were calculated with the aid of the computers, and as reference points for the calculations served the data, obtained in the course of full-scale investigations in the thermal mock-up AFAR.
9. The initially prepared structural mock-up showed that the construction/design must be facilitated: mass AFAR the diameter of 700 mm proved to be about 400 kg. after the analysis of this construction/design was executed the second construction, which made it possible to form the following appearance BRLS AFAR (Fig. 10).
It follows to consider as the basic results of this stage of construction:
• the decrease of mass BRLS to 220-240 kg;
• the decrease of a quantity PPM;
• the decrease of consumption from the sources of primary power to 5-6 kW due to a change in the regime BRLS;
• confirmation of the ability of the system of liquid cooling to remove to heat- from AFAR on the basis of the carried out analysis SZHO, which exists on the aircraft MiG-29.
The investigations conducted by us showed also that the passage in the radars of fighters from the traditional technology to AFAR makes it possible to most fully open the main quality of such BRLS - polyfunctionality- multimode character. In this case the effectiveness of functioning RLS in the traditional regimes considerably rises:
• approximately 2 time rises the target detection range;
• the number of serviced aerial targets with the maintaining of the survey of space increases to 60;
• the resolution of radar map rises to 1x1m;
• appears the possibility to realize and the new regimes/conditions (inverse synthesizing of ground-based objects, integration with other onboard systems of electronic reconnaissance, radio-electronic opposition, information input of group actions of aircraft, multiple-beam regime/conditions, which ensures simultaneous functioning RLS on the air and nazemnym/nadvodnym targets).
Production BRLS AFAR according to the second version of construction will be completed to 3- GO of block of 2006, and in pits block it is planned to install it to the aircraft MiG-29.
Is at present developed the complete set of the design documentation of the first experimental sample BRLS AFAR, in which previously the named principles are used:
• the open architecture BRLS with the possibility of both the adaptation under the specific carrier and of the modernization by replacing the separate blocks to the more contemporary or introduction into the structure of the new functional blocks, which expand tactical-technical possibilities;
• the built-in system of control, which ensures localization of malfunction with an accuracy to the plug-in package (knot);
• the accessibility of all blocks for the operational replacement in the process of operation;
• the possibility of the individual replacement of any PPM from the aperture AFAR directly aboard (without the dismantling of station for the repair);
• the principle of the functional separation of station into the modules, which ensures the possibility of tuning and of checking of separate functional modules and blocks before the installation and the sequential testing of the fragments of station in all stages of installation;
• the principle of the joint design concept of functional subassemblies AFAR with the systems of the guarantee of a fitness for work (cooling system).
• the mass-and-size parameters of basic building block AFAR:
- structural/design diameter - 600 mm;
- depth - is 300 mm;
- mass -105 kg.
In conclusion it would be desirable to express confidence in the fact that will succeed in carrying out these plans. Problems with financing of project in the size/dimension of 15-20 million dollars OF THE USA are thus far only obstacle on the way of their fulfillment.
Are further in the various articles represented the results of the work of the leading specialists of "synchro-cyclotron" in the development of the separate directions of the problem of creation BRLS AFAR.