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In presenting the hypothesis that initial carving of the Great Sphinx of Giza may predate its traditional attribution, it appears that I have stirred up much controversy within the Egyptological/archaeological community. I have no desire to be the proponent of a controversial hypothesis; I am simply advocating a tentative assumption that, in my opinion, best fits the evidence. My purpose is not to be dogmatic-I do not claim to have the 'truth"-but simply to present a testable hypothesis relative to the age of the Sphinx.
The Great Pyramid, Egypt from Sacred Sites
The Great Pyramid is the most substantial ancient structure in the world - and the most mysterious. According to prevailing archaeological theory - and there is absolutely no evidence to confirm this idea - the three pyramids on the Giza plateau are funerary structures of three kings of the fourth dynasty (2575 to 2465 BC). The Great Pyramid, attributed to Khufu (Cheops) is on the right of the photograph, the pyramid attributed to Khafra (Chephren) next to it, and that of Menkaura (Mycerinus) the smallest of the three. The Great Pyramid was originally 481 feet, five inches tall (146.7 meters) and measured 755 feet (230 meters) along its sides. Covering an area of 13 acres, or 53,000 square meters, it is large enough to contain the European cathedrals of Florence, Milan, St. Peters, Westminster Abbey and St. Paul's. Constructed from approximately 2.5 million limestone blocks weighing on average 2.6 tons each, its total mass is more than 6.3 million tons (representing more building material than is to be found in all the churches and cathedrals built in England since the time of Christ). The Great Pyramid was originally encased in highly polished, smooth white limestone and capped, according to legend, by a perfect pyramid of black stone, probably onyx. Covering an area of 22 acres the white limestone casing was removed by an Arab sultan in AD 1356 in order to build mosques and fortresses in nearby Cairo. Herodotus, the great Greek geographer, visited in the fifth century BC. Strabo, a Greco / Roman historian, came in the first century AD. Abdullah Al Mamun, son of the Caliph of Baghdad, forced the first historically recorded entrance in AD 820, and Napoleon was spellbound when he beheld the fantastic structure in 1798.
A grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation is allowing the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, to digitize and integrate all its diverse media archives from forty years of excavations at the famous Pyramids of Giza, Egypt.
This evolving resource will serve as a centralized online repository for all archaeological activity at the Giza Necropolis, beginning with the Harvard University - Boston Museum of Fine Arts excavations.
The Duke Papyrus Archive provides electronic access to texts about and images of nearly 1400 papyri from ancient Egypt. The target audience includes: papyrologists, ancient historians, archaeologists, biblical scholars, classicists, Coptologists, Egyptologists, students of literature and religion and all others interested in ancient Egypt.
The Pharaoh's Pump foundation is a nonprofit foundation dedicated in understanding how the Great Pyramid was built and why the Original Builders constructed this wonder of the world. Also we want to reverse engineer the ancient lost high technology relating to the Great Pyramid's construction and operation so that this ancient high technology can be used to help our modern yet troubled world.
This web site contains a complete scientific report about the investigation of the so-called "air shafts"
inside the Great Pyramid of Cheops, and all related additional information.
It includes a set of 4 extremely detailed CAD drawings,
27 explanatory graphics and 61 original photos.
The Giza Plateau Mapping Project, under the direction of Mark Lehner, Visiting Assistant Professor of Egyptian archaeology at the Oriental Institute, is dedicated to research on the geology and topography of the Giza plateau, the construction and function of the Sphinx, the Great Pyrimids, the associated tombs and temples, and the Old Kingdom town in the vicinity
Organized by date and dynasty, this site provides brief descriptions of events and important people for each period. The Culture and Religion exhibits provide information on topics including medicine, calendars, and hieroglyphics. The Archaeology exhibit includes a history of Egyptology, archaeological sites, daily life in Ancient Egypt, and weird theories.
Originally posted by 23Eulogy23
There is a Symbol in one of the pyramids called the flower of life
That was actually lasered into the wall, Its one of the greatest mysteries, ....
[edit on 26-3-2008 by 23Eulogy23]
A childhood interest in Egyptian hieroglyphs led Glyphdoctors founder Nicole Hansen to obtain a BA in Egyptology at the University of California at Berkeley and an MA in the same field at the University of Chicago. She recently completed her doctorate from the latter institution, with a dissertation on childbirth-related concepts and practices in Egypt from ancient to modern times.
Nicole specializes in the study of connections between ancient and modern Egyptian culture. For her, Egypt is not simply a culture of the past, it is a living and vibrant one. Nicole has spent nearly seven years living in Egypt and she finds that her research often has close links with life there.
Nicole brings to Glyphdoctors a wide range of teaching experience at all levels, including at the University of Chicago and the American University in Cairo. She has taught classroom, correspondence and Internet courses on hieroglyphs and Egyptian culture. She also lectures and publishes articles for scholarly and popular audiences, and is preparing an unpublished manuscript by the late Omm Sety about ancient traditions in modern Egypt for publication.
Through Glyphdoctors, she combines her teaching experience with her interest in using the Internet to present Egyptology to diverse audiences. As a staff member of Kent Weeks' Theban Mapping Project, Nicole edited their highly acclaimed website on the Valley of the Kings. As field archive manager for Mark Lehner's Giza Plateau Mapping Project, she participated in the development of an online field database. She also worked on a project to digitize historically important Egyptology publications at the University of Chicago library, and taught an online course on Egyptian folklore for the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
Nicole is excited about the new opportunities that this Web site opens up to Egypt enthusiasts around the world, saying: "Most Egyptologists spend their time holed up in a tomb or in a dusty library with their noses stuck in books, ignoring that the public is fascinated by the work they are doing. Many other people dream of becoming Egyptologists, but very few have a chance to realize these dreams. I've been very fortunate to do so and I would like to provide everyone with the opportunity to follow their passion for ancient Egypt by launching Glyphdoctors."
Glyphdoctors was opened to the public in April 2005 with free discussion forums about ancient Egypt. An online course in hieroglyphs began in 2006, and several other Egyptology courses are offered on this Web site as well. In April 2007, Egyptologist Edmund Meltzer joined Glyphdoctors to teach an upcoming course in ancient Egyptian religion.
Nicole is also available as a lecturer for Egyptological societies and tours to Egypt, and as an Egyptological consultant. Her complete CV can be viewed here. You can contact her directly if you have any questions or comments.
A microgravimetry survey of the Great Pyramid in the 1980s yielded the enigmatic image at right. Less dense areas (indicated in green) seem to correspond to an internal ramp proposed by Jean-Pierre Houdin (diagram).