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Andrei Nikolaievich Lankov PhD
Dr. Lankov is a research fellow at the China and Korea Centre, Faculty of Asian Studies, Australian National University (ANU). He received his M.A. and Ph.D. from Leningrad State University; thesis on factionalism in Yi Dynasty Korea (Political Factions and Conflicts in Korea, 16-18th cc.). An enhanced version published in 1995 as a book in Russian.
His main research interests are North Korean political and social history, with a special emphasis on the state's formative periods (1945-1965) and the Soviet and Chinese policy toward the Korean Peninsula; the Modern Korean city and social and cultural aspects of modernization in Korea.
Lankov also has written a large number of newspaper articles in Russian and English. Among them, a regular column "Dawn of Modern Korea" is published (twice a week) by Korea Times. The column deals with one of his research topics – the history of everyday life in Korea. He has been handling North Korean delegations which visited the ANU in 1998-2004. He also gave interviews to a large number of radio and TV stations, including SBS, CNN and Reuters.
He published numberous books on North and South Korea including: P'yongyang-ui chibung mit' (Under the Roofs of Pyongyang). Seoul: Yonhap, 1991 -- From Stalin to Kim Il Sung. London: Hurst and Co., 2002 -- Crisis in North Korea: The Failure of De-Stalinization, 1956. Honolulu: Hawaii University Press, 2004
The purpose of this paper is to outline the major premises and methods of modern North Korean domestic propaganda.
The most characteristic feature of North Korean propaganda is the almost sterile information environment in which it is able to operate. In the last few decades the North Korean authorities have successfully maintained a virtually complete information monopoly within the country's borders. All but a tiny fraction of the information available to the average North Korean has been provided by some government agency. This monopoly is not challenged by any alternative source, either internal (for example, legal or illegal press) or outside (the foreign broadcasting and print media). The DPRK is a unique example of an almost "hermetically" sealed society. Except for a small elite, North Koreans know of the world only what they are allowed to know by their government and all information is selected by the authorities according to very strict criteria. Of course, some rumours do leak from outside or from people who have authorised access to politically sensitive information, but these rumours obviously do not have a broad circulation, not least because of the fact that the unauthorised on-telling of such an information is also very risky.
Since the outside world is seen by North Korean authorities as a source of danger and ideological corruption, the utmost care is taken to seal all possible channels by which unauthorised data from the outside could otherwise filter into the North Korean information space. Obviously, of these channels, radio is the most "natural" source of unwanted information: it is easy to use, relatively cheap (even by North Korean standards), and portable, as well as capable of being received at long-distances -- i.e. from foreign or South Korean radio stations. Thus, radio is a source of the special attention by the authorities and is kept under particularly harsh control. Pyongyang does not follow the old Soviet example of jamming foreign radio stations. The North Korean authorities have found a cheaper, and more reliable solution: they have simply banned the domestic sale and use of the free-tuning radio receivers. The small lamp receivers which can be bought in North Korean shops (of course, one has to have special permission to buy even this piece of vintage technology) are fixed on the wave-length of the official broadcasting station. Certainly, a person with some technical knowledge can easily make the necessary changes and transform such a receiver into a real radio set. To prevent this from happening, the police undertake periodic random inspections of all registered receivers. Controlling the "right" use of radio receivers is also an important task of the heads of the so-called "people's groups" (inminban) [*1]. According to some reports, the head of inminban can break into any house at any time (even in the dead of night) to check whether there is a non-registered receiver present. Such measures, obviously, are not water-proof, since at least one of the author’s North Korean acquaintances had access to a "normal" radio with free tuning and listened to foreign programs with his family, but this was, no doubt, a rather risky business.
All resistance was suppressed with an iron fist. The Pyongyang dreamers had few doubts about it, at least when they did not witness the violence directly. After all, the victims were"class enemies" and "reactionary elements".
And then the logic of the system made it clear that a concentration of power would be necessary. Personal ambition ensured that the struggle for domination developed at the apex of this pyramid. Actually, this is normal: the top levels of any human hierarchy tend to be a nasty place of intense rivalries, hypocrisy, and intrigue. The difference was that in the Stalinist system the losing side was not simply deprived of power: it was physically annihilated. With rare exceptions, the system did not provide an opportunity to leave politics peacefully, even when a person wanted to do so. This made the power struggle even more brutal, and soon the former idealists were at one another's throats.
Kim Il Sung eventually became a master of this cruel game, even if he initially was drugged into it somewhat reluctantly, and perhaps even against his own will (there are some reports that he was not very happy to play the nation's leader in 1946). Initially, he made sure that all factions united against the most vulnerable Southern group, which was destroyed in 1953-1955. Its most prominent members were tortured into delivering absurd "confessions" at a public trial, while the less prominent simply disappeared without trace. Then the same fate befell all the other groups that potentially could challenge Kim¡'s supremacy – and finally, in the late 1960s, even a number of Kim¡¯s own ex-guerrillas were sent to the prison camps, probably to demonstrate that nobody was invulnerable.
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) endeavoured to overcome these restrictions and create the minimum conditions necessary to work decently in North Korea between 1995 and 1998, but was unsuccessful. The teams realised that the government fabricated whatever they wanted aid workers to see: malnourished children in nurseries when more food aid was desired, and well-fed children when donors needed reassurance that food aid was doing good.
Refugee testimonies corroborate this: some report having carried food from military storage to nurseries before a UN visit, and others speak of being mobilised to dig up areas to exacerbate flood damage in preparation for a UN inspection.
MSF began to understand that the North Korean government categorises its population according to perceived loyalty and usefulness to the regime, and those deemed hostile or useless were expendable. In fact, in 1996, Kim Jong-il publicly declared that only 30% of the population needed to survive to reconstruct a victorious society. With no possibility of directing aid to those most in need, MSF withdrew.
North Korea has one of the worst human rights records of any nation. Reports by human rights organizations and foreign governments regularly accuse the government of failing to protect the human rights of North Koreans (Amnesty International); North Korea receives particular criticism for its policy of preventing citizens from leaving the country freely.
North Korea is accused of employing concentration camps (video link) and severely restricting most freedoms, such as freedom of speech. These camps are believed to hold as many as 200,000 inmates, including children whose only crime is having class enemies for parents; in some of the camps, the annual mortality rate approaches 25% (, ). A recent BBC documentary () also reported that in one of these camps, North Korea tests chemical weapons on prisoners in a gas chamber: " 'I witnessed a whole family being tested on suffocating gas and dying in the gas chamber,' he said. 'The parents, son and and a daughter. The parents were vomiting and dying, but till the very last moment they tried to save kids by doing mouth-to-mouth breathing.' [The North Korean citizen] has drawn detailed diagrams of the gas chamber he saw. He said: 'The glass chamber is sealed airtight. It is 3.5 metres wide, 3m long and 2.2m high_ [There] is the injection tube going through the unit. Normally, a family sticks together and individual prisoners stand separately around the corners. Scientists observe the entire process from above, through the glass." ()
Less often discussed are the human rights implications of North Korea's famine (), which killed between 600,000 () and 3.5 million people ( ), mostly during the 1990's (). By 1999, food and development aid reduced famine deaths. However, North Korea's deteriorating foreign relations resulting from its pursual of nuclear weapons led to a decline in foreign aid. In the spring of 2005, the World Food Program reported that famine conditions were in imminent danger of returning to North Korea (), and the regime was reported to have ordered millions of city-dwellers to the countryside to perform farm labor ().
North Korea's society is highly stratified by class, according to a citizen's family and political background (). Refugees International (), Médecins Sans Frontières (), and Amnesty International (), have all accused North Korea of discriminating against those in "hostile" classes in the distribution of basic necessities, including food. In some "closed" areas () that contained a higher concentration of "hostile" class members, the government appears to have prevented the delivery of any significant amounts of food aid at all.
Yet during this same period, North Korea maintained a massive military machine and supported an extravagant lifestyle for its leader, Kim Jong-Il (). The World Food Program currently seeks $200 million in emergency food aid for North Korea () an increase from its 2004 request of $171 million (). By comparison, its 2002 defense budget was $5.2 billion ().
In 2005, news sources reported that North Korea continued to raise food prices while reducing food rations to the below-subsistence amount of 250 grams per person per day, the equivalent of two medium-sized potatoes ().
Unless conclusive new evidence comes to light, the entire uranium issue should be deferred so that the parties can focus on the more immediate threat: North Korea's known plutonium-reprocessing capabilities. Since the 1994 agreement collapsed, there is clear evidence that Pyongyang has reprocessed some or all of the 8,000 plutonium fuel rods at the Yongbyon reactor that had been safeguarded under the accord. By scuttling the 1994 agreement on the basis of uncertain data that it presented with absolute certitude, and by insisting that North Korea "confess" to the existence of a uranium program before new negotiations on denuclearization can begin, the Bush administration has blocked action on the one present threat that North Korea is known to pose: the threat represented by its reprocessed plutonium, which could be used for nuclear weapons or transferred to third parties.
Originally posted by xiaoxing
I can't read so much english
but my answer to your question is NO
Chinese don't like war
[edit on 9-6-2005 by Springer]
Originally posted by ulshadow
Originally posted by xiaoxing
I can't read so much english
but my answer to your question is NO
Chinese don't like war
[edit on 9-6-2005 by Springer]
wow, if they don't like war then why they said they will invade taiwan if they declear indepencede...
xiaoxing said:Chinese don't like war
Dero Said: Sounds like someone's been reading too much into The Man in the High Castle to me.
thaei said: Sung regime should be Kim regime. i guess you based "sung" from the elder kim's - kim il sung - name.
BTW, your claim that ww3 is being instigated by china through NK is far-fetched. The north may be mistreating its citizens but there will be no war unless a "concerned" (more like NOSY) third party interferes and threatens war upon them.
China is gearing up for conflict. The US (most likely third party to interfere) is already geared up for conflict. Chinas military spending is dwarfed by the US.
Dissident: Beijing planning nuclear war
Wei Jingsheng urges Americans to wake up to threat
Posted: September 13, 2005 --- 1:00 a.m. Eastern
© 2005 WorldNetDaily.com
Chinese dissident Wei Jingsheng warns of Beijing's nuclear threat
A leading Chinese dissident warns the United States has not paid enough attention to a growing threat of nuclear war with China.
Wei Jingsheng, who spent 18 years in detention for his pro-democracy activism, told a forum at the National Press Club in Washington that China needs the distraction of a war with Taiwan to turn attention away from the people's frustration with rampant corruption and failed policies at home, reported the Epoch Times, an independent news service that focuses on China.
Wei said a number of factors are prompting Beijing to consider conventional warfare against Taiwan and even nuclear warfare against the U.S.
He pointed out a treaty with Russia, a traditional enemy, stipulates that if China invades Taiwan, Moscow will not support the U.S. in its defense of the island.
The exercises in August were to include launches of intercontinental ballistic missiles [...].
Wei said the Chinese Communist Party is considering nuclear war, because it is not afraid to sacrifice China's people.
He cited Chinese general Zhu Chenghu's recent public declaration that China would launch nuclear weapons if attacked by the U.S. and that "we … will prepare ourselves for the destruction of all the cities east of Xian," which would include Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou.
The dissident warned Americans not to underestimate the irrational behavior of the communist leadership.
Some panelists said the Communist Party fears for its future, pointing out the recent resignation of 4 million party members.
The Epoch Times said its nine-part editorial series on the party, published last November, is partly responsible for the mass resignations.
America is sleeping, dreaming images of a pleasant, peaceful China, all the panelists agreed.
Panelist Frank Gong said the Communist Party knows that if it allows political liberty and freedom of speech, its past crimes – including an estimated 80 million dead – will be exposed, and the party will face "immediate collapse."
I realize this has been discussed elsewhere, but I just want to point out that the US does not have any generals making crazy statements or fleeing citizens warning of the desperate state of its rulers.
If you were going to be gutted like a fish mussolini-style, and so were all your party buddies, you'd be willing to sacrifice your country too. Look at China's history... Nothing but civil wars.
The USA is the first magnificent enemy China has faced on a global scale. There are racial supremacists inside China, just as evil and deadly as the racists inside the USA, believe me.
Originally posted by smallpeeps
Now, ask yourself which is worse: Birdflu in China or American nukes in China, because I believe the CCP bosses are considering this very same question. If bird flu happens throughout China with massive death tolls, the CCP may be faced with riots and loss of control.
China sells arms to Venezuela
The deal also includes the purchase of “other air security equipment” such as radios, and the possibility of renting a satellite communications system, the Defence Ministry said in a statement. The cost of the deal was not disclosed.
Originally posted by Regenmacher
We all know that on account of our national superiority, during the thriving and prosperous Tang Dynasty our civilization was at the peak of the world. We were the center of the world civilization, and no other civilization in the world was comparable to ours. Later on, because of our complacency, narrow-mindedness, and the self-enclosure of our own country, we were surpassed by Western civilization, and the center of the world shifted to the West.
Our Chinese people are wiser than the Germans because, fundamentally, our race is superior to theirs. As a result, we have a longer history, more people, and larger land area. On this basis, our ancestors left us with the two most essential heritages, which are atheism and great unity. It was Confucius, the founder of our Chinese culture, who gave us these heritages.