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Originally posted by Duzey
Seeing as how you have more than 20 posts, you could try to u2u FredT with a link to your post. He is the ATS FSME on medical issues, and would probably be the best person on this forum to ask for information.
Potassium: (K+) Is the Principal electrolyte of intracellular fluid. This cation also serves as the primary intracellular buffer. It along with calcium and magnesium controls the rate and contractile force of the heart. As a buffer, K+ is substituted for Hydrogen Ions in the kidney The bulk of the bodies reserves are contained in the cells (85-90%) One kilogram of muscle or cells can contain 90 mEq of K+. When cells are damaged, they can release their K+. It also is critical for nerve muscle function.
Sodium: (Na+) is the most common electrolyte and forms the primary base of the blood. Its job is to maintain osmotic pressure, assist Potassium with acid-base balance, and help transmit nerve impulses. Like Potassium, the Kidneys control Na+ concentration. There are also several other mechanisms including: Carbonic Anhydrase Enzyme (controls excretion rate), Aldosterone (effects reabsorption), Renin Enzyme (Effects Aldosterone secretion)
Calcium: (Ca2+) Calcium is used by the body for muscle contraction, cardiac function, blood clotting and nerve impulse transmission. The bones and teeth store almost 100% of the bodies Ca2+. The remainder is found in the blood. About 50% of the Ca2+ in the body is in Ionized form. This level will fluctuate based on the patients acid base balance (Acidosis will increase the %, Alkalosis will decrease the %) Ionized Ca2+ is the only form that the body uses. Parathyroid hormone regulates blood Ca2+ by causing Ca2+ release from bones. It also increases absorption of Ca2+ from the intestine (Vitamin D as well) and kidneys. Estrogen also increases Ca2+ deposits into bones.
Chloride (Cl-) is an anion that is found mostly in extracellular spaces. Cl- helps maintain the osmotic pressure. It also helps maintain acid-base balance as well as fluid balances. Cl- has the ability to increase and decrease in response to changes in other anions. When bicarbonate decreases in metabolic acidosis serum Cl- rises. When aldosterone increases sodium absorption (+ ion) Cl- increases (- ion).
Magnesium (Mg2+) is required for the use of ATP. It also is required for Carbohydrate metabolism, Protein and Nucleic Acid synthesis, and contraction of muscular tissue. Mg2+ works with Calcium. A deficiency in Mg2+ often results in Calcium being leeched out of the patients bones. This in turn can cause calcification in the kidney and the aorta. Normally, 95% of Mg2+ is reabsorbed by the kidneys.
Phosphorus (P) is necessary for the growth of bones, and helps with the metabolism of fats and glucose. It also help in maintaining the acid base balance. Its most important function is to transport energy from one part of the body to the other. Phosphorus enters the cells with glucose. It also has an inverse relationship with Calcium. When Phosphorus levels are high, Calcium levels are low. Its levels are controlled primarily by the parathyroid hormone.