India's electron-accelerated pulse-power gigahertz microwave beam weapon : KALI
Indian atomic scientists have developed the country's first 'star wars' weapon whose beams could cripple enemy missiles and aircraft.
Bursts of microwaves for KALI packed with gigawatts of power could "soft kill" incoming enemy aircraft and missiles by crippling their electronics
systems and computer chips.
KALI = Kilo-Ampere Linear Injector
Kali is also the name of on all powerful demon killing Hindu godess.
According to scientists, ''soft killing" by high power microwaves has advantages over the so called laser weapon which destroys by drilling holes
The Kali system was developed for industrial applications and that the defence use was a recent spinoff.
Development of the Kali machine was mooted in 1985 by Dr Chidambaram, then director of BARC, but work earnestly began in 1989.
The machine essentially generated pulses of highly energetic electrons. Other components in the machine down the line converted the electrons into
flash X-rays (for ultra high-speed photography) or microwaves. The electron beam itself can be used for welding.
The Defence Balistics Research Institute in Chandigarh is already using an X-ray version of Kali to study speed of projectiles.
Another defense institute in Bangalore is using a microwave-producing version of Kali which the scientists use for testing the vulnerability of the
electronic systems going into the LCA Tejas under development and designing electrostatic shields to protect them from microwave attack by the
According to BARC scientists, the Kali machine has for the first time provided India a way to ''harden" the electronic systems used in satellites
and missiles against the deadly electromagnetic impulses (EMI) generated by nuclear weapons.
The EMI wrecks havoc by creating intense electric field of several thousand volts per centimeter. The electronic components currently used in missiles
can withstand fields of Just 300 volts per centimeter.
While the Kali systems built so far are single shot pulse power systems,the Kali-5000 is a rapid fire device, and hence its derrivative will be used
as beam weapon.
According to BARC-published reports, the machine will shoot several thousand bursts of microwaves, each burst lasting for just 60 billionths of a
second and packed with a power of about four gigawatts.
The high power microwave pulses travel in a straight line and do not dissipate their energy if the frequency falls between three and ten gigahertz.
APPD has pioneered this technique in the country and has built four accelerators of this type. Starting with a modest power level of 0.4 GW, APPD has
come a long way to build accelerators with a power level of 40 GW. KALI 80, KALI 200, KALI 1000, and KALI 5000 fall in this category.
Multiple Shot, 1 GW, 10 -100 Hz, Linear Induction Accelerator – LINAC
This Accelerator will deliver electron beam at the rate of 10 - 100 Hz with an energy and current of 200 keV, 5kA respectively. The pulse length will
be around 50 ns. In this device, double exponential electrical pulses of 20 kV/20ms produced by a solid state driver are amplified, compressed and
shaped into rectangular pulses of 75 kV / 50 ns by successive stages of magnetic compression switches. These pulses are fed into a two-stage induction
accelerator cavities, for accelerating the electron beams to about 1 GW of power (peak). This accelerator will also be used for generating HPM and FXR
and dynamic imaging. Most of its subsystems are in the advanced stage of fabrication.
This is huge