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The Decades of History of RFID:
• 1940 - 1950 Radar refined and used, major World War II development effort.
• RFID invented in 1948.
• 1950 – 1960 Early explorations of RFID technology, laboratory experiments.
• 1960 – 1970 Development of the theory of RFID. Start of applications field trials.
• 1970 – 1980 Explosion of RFID development. Tests of RFID accelerate. Very early adopter implementations of RFID.
• 1980 – 1990 Commercial applications of RFID enter mainstream.
• 1990 – 2000 Emergence of standards. RFID widely deployed. RFID becomes a part of everyday life.
The IFF system traditionally used coded radar signals (also known as interrogations) to automatically trigger the aircraft's transponder in an aircraft "painted" by the radar. A transponder responds,
• in a military aircraft (other military vehicles or units similarly equipped) equiped with an IFF capable transponder, by returning a correctly coded reply signal only when the incoming interrogation is identified as part of the friendly forces network;
• if no IFF response is generated a civil interrogation is generated and the aircraft, by returning a proper code can then be identified.
In an IFF network both the interrogation and reply are verified as friendly. Interrogation validation prevents an interrogator from using a transponder's replies for tracking purposes.
An early, if not the first, work exploring RFID is the landmark paper by Harry Stockman, "Communication by Means of Reflected Power", Proceedings of the IRE, pp1196-1204, October 1948. Stockman stated then that "Evidently, considerable research and development work has to be done before the remaining basic problems in reflected-power communication are solved, and before the field of useful applications is explored."
Work on RFID systems as we know them began in earnest in the 1970s. In
1972, Kriofsky and Kaplan .led a patent application for an “inductively coupled
transmitter-responder arrangement.”3 This system used separate coils for
receiving power and transmitting the return signal. In 1979, Beigel .led a new
application for an “identi.cation device” that combined the two antennas;
many consider his application by to be the landmark RFID application because
it emphasized the potentially small size of RFID devices.
In the Smithsonian Museum of American History in Washington, D.C. there's an exhibit that features a pack of Wrigley's Chewing Gum. The significance: That very pack of gum was the first product ever scanned by a barcode reading system. The gum was scanned successfully back in June of 1974 at a supermarket in Ohio.
EPCglobal Inc., which has taken over for the MIT Auto ID Center, is the non-profit organization that is working to standardize electronic product codes and RFID technology.
• High-frequency RFID tags are used in library book or bookstore tracking, pallet tracking, building access control, airline baggage tracking, and apparel item tracking. High-frequency tags are widely used in identification badges, replacing earlier magnetic stripe cards. These badges need only be held within a certain distance of the reader to authenticate the holder. The American Express Blue credit card now includes a high-frequency RFID tag, a feature American Express calls ExpressPay.
• UHF RFID tags are commonly used commercially in pallet and container tracking, and truck and trailer tracking in shipping yards.
• Microwave RFID tags are used in long range access control for vehicles.
• RFID tags are used for electronic toll collection at toll booths with California's FasTrak, Illinois' I-Pass, the expanding eastern state's E-ZPass system, and the Philippines South Luzon Expressway E-Pass. The tags are read remotely as vehicles pass through the booths, and tag information is used to debit the toll from a prepaid account. The system helps to speed traffic through toll plazas.
• Sensors such as seismic sensors may be read using RFID transceivers, greatly simplifying remote data collection.
• In January 2003, Michelin began testing RFID transponders embedded into tires. After a testing period that is expected to last 18 months, the manufacturer will offer RFID enabled tires to car makers. Their primary purpose is tire-tracking in compliance with the United States Transportation, Recall, Enhancement, Accountability and Documentation Act (TREAD Act).
• Some smart cards embedded with RFID chips are used as electronic cash, e.g. Octopus Card in Hong Kong and the Netherlands and United Kingdom (In the form of the London Underground Oyster Card) to pay fares in mass transit systems and/or retails.
• Starting with the 2004 model year, a Smart Key option is available to the Toyota Prius and some Lexus models. The key fob uses an active RFID circuit which allow the car to acknowledge the key's presence within 3 feet of the sensor. The driver can open the doors and start the car while the key remains in a purse or pocket.
• In August 2004, the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction (ODRH) approved a $415,000 contract to evaluate the personnel tracking technology of Alanco Technologies. Inmates will wear wristwatch-sized transmitters that can detect if prisoners have been trying to remove them and send an alert to prison computers. This project is not the first such rollout of tracking chips in US prisons. Facilities in Michigan, California and Illinois already employ the technology.
• Foreign Animal Disease control, surveillance, and prevention
• Biosecurity protection of the national herd
• Identification of livestock vaccinated or tested under official disease control or eradication program
• Official identification of animals in interstate or international commerce
• Accurate identification of blood and tissue specimens
• Improvement of laboratory diagnostic and reporting capabilities
• Health status certification of herds, States, and Regions
• Effective regionalization and risk assessment in support of international trade
Lauren Scott of California is blazing a new trail in children's wear. The $2 million-a-year apparel division of DST Media Inc. will launch a line of pajamas with radio-frequency identification tags sewn into the hems. Readers positioned at various points throughout a house, such as doorways and windows, will be able to scan the tags within a 30-foot radius, and an alarm will be triggered when boundaries are breached.
"You look at these kids and think, 'I would do everything to protect them,'" says proprietor Lauren Scott, who licensed the RFID technology from SmartWear Technologies Inc., a manufacturer and supplier of personal security systems. "I'm confident other manufacturers in children's wear will follow within the next year." Scott will introduce the sleepwear in her spring 2006 collection. An estimated 250,000 pieces will begin shipping to various retail stores in December and are expected to be available to consumers by February.
Sec. 601.507.INSPECTION CERTIFICATES. (a)
Commencing not later than January 1, 2006, the department shall issue or contract for the issuance of special inspection certificates to be affixed to motor vehicles that are inspected and found to be in proper and safe condition under Chapter 548. (b) An inspection certificate under this section must contain a tamper-resistant transponder, and at a minimum, be capable of storing: (1) the transponder's unique identification number; and (2) the make, model, and vehicle identification number of the vehicle to which the certificate is affixed. (c) In addition, the transponder must be compatible with: (1) the automated vehicle registration and
certificate of title system established by the Texas Department of Transportation; and (2) interoperability standards established by the Texas Department of Transportation and other entities for use of the system of toll roads and toll facilities in this state. Sec. 601.508. CIVIL PENALTY. (a) If an electronic reading
device detects and identifies a motor vehicle to which a special inspection certificate is affixed that is not covered by a motor vehicle liability insurance policy that provides the minimum coverages required by this chapter, on verification of the information and issuance of a written notice of noncompliance, the registered owner of the vehicle is liable to the state for the payment of a civil penalty in the amount of $250. (b) In connection with the same vehicle, until the 60th day
after the date of issuance of a written notice under Subsection (a), the registered owner is not liable for the payment of another civil penalty under this subchapter if that vehicle is subsequently detected and identified by an electronic reading device and determined not to be covered by an appropriate motor vehicle liability insurance policy. Sec. 601.509.
The British government is preparing to test new high-tech license plates containing microchips capable of transmitting unique vehicle identification numbers and other data to readers more than 300 feet away.
Officials in the United States say they'll be closely watching the British trial as they contemplate initiating their own tests of the plates, which incorporate radio frequency identification, or RFID, tags to make vehicles electronically trackable.
And VeriGuard is not just access control. Using the real-time location and tracking capabilities, you can track and protect assets, staff, and visitors within your facility simultaneously with your perimeter, floor, and/or room protection. With a range of product and ID options to suit your needs and budget, VeriGuard delivers the ultimate security for your organization and access control never possible before.
The key to RFID's broad adoption, from cases to single items, is dropping its cost from the current 30 cents to 50 cents per tag. (Benefit of doubt: I assume he means from 50 cents to 30 cents.) "Nanotechnology could really help accomplish the goal of five-cent RFIDs for ubiquitous use," Steven Van Fleet, Micromem's senior RFID adviser, said.
The night club offers its VIP clients the opportunity to have a syringe-injected microchip implanted in their upper arms that not only gives them special access to VIP lounges, but also acts as a debit account from which they can pay for drinks.
This sort of thing is handy for a beach club where bikinis and board shorts are the uniform and carrying a wallet or purse is really not practical.
1. Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence.
2. There shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.
(b) Conditions of disclosure
No agency shall disclose any record which is contained in a system of records by any means of communication to any person, or to another agency, except pursuant to a written request by, or with the prior written consent of, the individual to whom the record pertains, unless disclosure of the record would be--
(1) to those officers and employees of the agency which maintains the record who have a need for the record in the performance of their duties;
(2) required under section 552 of this title;
(3) for a routine use as defined in subsection (a)(7) of this section and described under subsection (e)(4)(D) of this section;
(4) to the Bureau of the Census for purposes of planning or carrying out a census or survey or related activity pursuant to the provisions of Title 13;
(5) to a recipient who has provided the agency with advance adequate written assurance that the record will be used solely as a statistical research or reporting record, and the record is to be transferred in a form that is not individually identifiable;
(6) to the National Archives and Records Administration as a record which has sufficient historical or other value to warrant its continued preservation by the United States Government, or for evaluation by the Archivist of the United States or the designee of the Archivist to determine whether the record has such value;
(7) to another agency or to an instrumentality of any governmental jurisdiction within or under the control of the United States for a civil or criminal law enforcement activity if the activity is authorized by law, and if the head of the agency or instrumentality has made a written request to the agency which maintains the record specifying the particular portion desired and the law enforcement activity for which the record is sought;
(8) to a person pursuant to a showing of compelling circumstances affecting the health or safety of an individual if upon such disclosure notification is transmitted to the last known address of such individual;
(9) to either House of Congress, or, to the extent of matter within its jurisdiction, any committee or subcommittee thereof, any joint committee of Congress or subcommittee of any such joint committee;
(10) to the Comptroller General, or any of his authorized representatives, in the course of the performance of the duties of the General Accounting Office;
(11) pursuant to the order of a court of competent jurisdiction; or
(12) to a consumer reporting agency in accordance with section 3711(e) of Title 31.
Congress has drafted new bills and held hearings to try to determine what it or other government agencies should do to protect us. For the first time, there's a bill on the table that more directly addresses regulating information brokers, not just telling consumers about problems after the fact or setting standards for procedures like proper Social Security number use.
"We have developed a suite of advanced technology solutions for many of the most challenging security issues facing the international community today," said Scott R. Silverman, Applied Digital's Chairman and CEO. "Through Digital Angel (AMEXOC), we protect animals (companion pets, fish and livestock) using our proprietary microchip, eartag and scanner technologies. This same technology allows us to monitor, identify and evaluate food chains and their safety. VeriChip, the first implantable microchip for humans, provides security for people, their personal information, their identity, their medical records (pending FDA approval), and their financial information. VeriChip also provides security for building access and facility monitoring, as reflected by the recent 'chipping' of Attorney General of Mexico, Rafael Macedo de la Concha and some of his staff."
Silverman continued, "Through Digital Angel's Signature Industries, we manufacture a leading Search and Rescue Beacon- SARBE- for the security of fighter jets and their pilots. We also provide security for the Department of Homeland Security, specifically The Border Patrol and U.S. Customs. Digital Angel's OuterLink subsidiary provides spread spectrum location and communication technology to these agencies as well as Shell Oil Company. Our GTI subsidiary sells and maintains secure telecomm infrastructure to numerous agencies of the Federal Government. This is just part of how Applied Digital provides 'Security Through Innovation'."
Example 3 (SpeedPassTM theft via active attack). Eve carries a reader and short-range antenna
with her onto a subway car. (Alternatively, Eve could carry a large “package” with a
concealed antenna in some public place.) As she brushes up near other passengers, she harvests
chosen challenge-response pairs (along with the serial numbers of target devices) from any
SpeedPassTM tokens they may be carrying. Later, at her leisure, Eve recovers the associated
cryptographic keys. She programs the keys into a software radio, which she uses to purchase
gasoline. To allay suspicion, she takes care to simulate a compromised SpeedPassTM only once.
Additionally, she hides the tag simulator itself under her clothing, interacting with the pump
reader via an antenna passing through a sleeve up to an inactive SpeedPassTM casing.
A group of twenty-somethings from Southern California climbed onto the hotel roof to show that RFID tags could be read from as far as 69 feet. That's important because the tags have been proposed for such things as US passports, and critics have raised fears that kidnappers could use RFID readers to pick traveling US citizens out of a crowd.
RFID companies had said the signals didn't reach more than 20 feet, said John Hering, one of the founders of Flexilis, the company that conducted the experiment.
Radio frequency is another technology that supermarkets are already using in a number of places throughout the store. We now envision a day where consumers will walk into a store, select products whose packages are embedded with small radio frequency UPC codes, and exit the store without ever going through a checkout line or signing their name on a dotted line.
TSI PRISM technology addresses the weaknesses of conventional correctional facilities security and safety with state-of-the-art wireless RFID and tracking technology, providing real-time identification and tracking of inmates and staff at two-second intervals twenty-four hours per day, 365 days per year.
In prison networks with such technology, RFID readers are planted throughout a jail in such large numbers that bracelet-wearing inmates can be continually tracked. When an inmate comes within range of a sensor, it detects his or her presence and records the event in a database. Thus, if an assault occurs at night, prison officials can look at the RFID logs and identify who was at the scene at the time of the incident. Tampering with the bracelet sends an alarm to the system. The system can also warn of gang gatherings.
Its the theory based around a one world government. Some say its already here, other say its still to come, but the way it will work is basicly an international police state based around a Hitler type of figure as leader.
what will be the first steps of action? well, police or NWO troops number will increase on the streets, especially at night. People who are against the nwo will be rounded up, camps will be opened and a police state will swing into action.
Under the banner of "homeland security," the military and intelligence communities are implementing far-reaching changes that blur the lines between terrorism and other kinds of crises and will break down long-established barriers to military action and surveillance within the U.S.
Under the Justice Department's new definition of "enemy combatant"—which won the enthusiastic approval of the president and Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld—anyone defined as an "enemy combatant," very much including American citizens, can be held indefinitely by the government, without charges, a hearing, or a lawyer. In short, incommunicado.
RFID would become a tracking device tool. The NWO will bring it in and say "it’s for our protection" but this technology will have two faces to it. The tracking side of it, is what I’m worried about
1And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.
2And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.
3And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the beast.
4And they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast? who is able to make war with him?
5And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months.
6And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven.
7And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations.
8And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.
9If any man have an ear, let him hear.
10He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity: he that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints.
11And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon.
12And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed.
13And he doeth great wonders, so that he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men,
14And deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by the means of those miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast; saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast, which had the wound by a sword, and did live.
15And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed.
16And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads:
17And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.
18Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.
Revelation 12: 3 And there appeared another wonder in heaven; and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads.
1And there came one of the seven angels which had the seven vials, and talked with me, saying unto me, Come hither; I will shew unto thee the judgment of the great whore that sitteth upon many waters:
2With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication.
3So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns.
4And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:
5And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.
6And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration.
7And the angel said unto me, Wherefore didst thou marvel? I will tell thee the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and ten horns.
8The beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is.
9And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth.
10And there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space.
11And the beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition.
12And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast.
The Real ID act started off as H.R. 418, which passed the House (261-161-11) and went stagnant. It was then attached as a rider on a military spending bill (H.R. 1268) by Representative Sensenbrenner (R) of Wisconsin (the author) and was voted upon (100-0) . It was signed into public law (109-13) on May 11, 2005.
The THOMAS bill summaries for both H.R. 418 and H.R. 1268 show voting records and show who are supporters and proponents of this act and why they do or do not support it. It should be noted that cosponsors of the original legislation to which REAL ID was attached do not necessarily support this bill.
On March 2, 2007, it was announced that enforcement of the Act would be postponed for two years. The provisions of the bill will be delayed from going into effect until December 2009. On January 11, 2008, it was announced that the deadline has been extended again, until 2011, in hopes of gaining more support from states. Source
Physical security features designed to prevent tampering, counterfeiting, or duplication of the document for fraudulent purposes.
A common machine-readable technology, with defined minimum data elements (the details of which are not spelled out, but left to the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation and the States, to regulate). Source
9And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand,
10The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb:
11And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever: and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark of his name. Source
Always wanted a tattoo but afraid of what your boss will say? Thanks to a fascinating new technique you can cover yourself in body art and no one will be the wiser – unless they see you in the dark, which is the only time these tattoos are visible. The new technique uses blacklight reactive ink, which is reactive to UV light. It’s kinda freaky but imagine the fun you could have after dark. by Billy T
Somark Innovations announced biocompatible RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) ink, which can be used to tattoo cattle and laboratory rats and can be read through animal hair.
It might even be used on humans eventually.
This is a passive RFID technology that contains no metals; the tattoos themselves can be colored or invisible. Source
Invisible RFID Ink Safe For Cattle And People, Company Says
The process developed by Somark involves a geometric array of micro-needles and an ink capsule, which is used to 'tattoo' an animal. The ink can be detected from 4 feet away. Source